Broadcasting Magazine, May 14, 1962

The following articles appeared in a special issue of Broadcasting magazine.

First Transmitters Made Mostly by Hand

Western Electric Equipment Used in Early '20s; Others in Field

Honors for the first commercial broadcast transmitter belong to Western Electric Co., manufacturing arm of the AT&T. The design of the transmitter, a 100 w job, was begun in 1921. By the end of 1922, some 30 radio stations were broadcasting to the American public with WE equipment.

There had been earlier transmitters, but most were what were then called radio-telephone apparatus, generally hand-built or put together by the thousands of amateurs whose imaginations were fired by Marconi's great triumph and by those who had been exposed to radio during World War I.

The first WE model, a 100 watter, was installed on the 11th floor of the Engineering Dept. Building on West St., and used for WEAF New York. The 500-w transmitter, also went up to the 11th floor of the West St. building; this was used for WBAY New York.

By the end of 1922 these stations were using WE transmitters:

WNAC Boston, Shepherd Stores, 100 w; WOR Newark, N. J., L. Bamberger & Co., 500 w; WIP Philadelphia, Gimbel Bros., 500 w; WSB Atlanta, Atlanta Journal, 500 w; WMC Memphis, Memphis Commercial-Appeal, 500 w; WFAA Dallas, Dallas News and Journal, 500 w; WBAP Fort Worth, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 500 w; WDAF Kansas City, Kansas City Star, 500 w; WHB Kansas City, Sweeney Automobile School; KSD St. Louis, St. Louis Dispatch, 500 w; WOC Davenport (Iowa), Palmer School of Chiropractic, 500 w; WGN Chicago, Chicago Tribune, operated in conjunction with The Fair department store, 500 w; WHAS Louisville, Louisville Courier-Journal, 500 w; WWJ Detroit, Detroit News, 500 w; WCX (now WJR) Detroit, Detroit Free Press, 500 w; WHAM Rochester (N. Y.), Rochester Democrat & Chronicle, with the radio plant installed in the Eastman School of Music, 100 w; WLAG Minneapolis (on 720 kc) 500 w, formed by eight electrical concerns in that city and WKAQ San Juan, 500 w, Puerto Rico Telephone Co.

One WE transmitter was used at New Bedford, Mass., by Col. E. H. Green, son of the renowned first lady of finance of that era, Hetty Green. Col. Green used his broadcast station, WMAF, principally to entertain guests on his estate and for the delectation of the nearby populace. He started with a 100 w transmitter and before the year was up had boosted this to 500 w.

In Philadelphia, the John Wanamaker department store used a WE 500 w transmitter to communicate with its store in New York.

In Jefferson City, Mo., a 500 w WE transmitter, WOS, was owned by the state and used by the State Market Commission to broadcast market news.

In Cleveland, the Union Trust Co. used its WE broadcast transmitter (WJAX) to broadcast stocks, bond, agricultural prices and weather reports.

And in Troy, N. Y., Renesselaer Polytechnic Institute installed a WE 500 w transmitter (now WHAZ) in its Russel Sage Lab.

In Cuba, the Cuban Telephone Co. was using a WE 500 w transmitter broadcasting with call letters PWX.

There were two other companies in the business of making transmitters in those days, but they made them only for their own stations.

Westinghouse Electric Corp. made transmitters for its owned stations. These were KDKA Pittsburgh, KYW Chicago, WBZ Springfield and WJZ Newark, N. J. KDKA received the first unit, a 100 w transmitter and jumped to 10 kw in 1923 and finally to 40 kw in 1925. For a time Westinghouse, like the John Wanamaker store in Philadelphia, used its broadcast stations after hours for inter-plant communications but this was discontinued when the Secretary of Commerce objected.

General Electric Co., heavily engaged in manufacturing radio-telephone apparatus for the military services, tailored three of these for its own radio stations - WGY Schenectady, KOA Denver and KGO Oakland, Calif.

RCA began selling station "apparatus" in 1929. The equipment was made by Westinghouse and General Electric but sold through the Radio Corporation. RCA was founded in 1919 by Westinghouse, GE and AT&T. In 1922 it was mainly in the communications business although it did sell tubes and parts, manufactured by Westinghouse and GE, for receivers and stations. In 1930, a year after RCA acquired the Victor Talking Machine Co. plant in Camden, N. J., it began manufacturing and selling transmitters and equipment.

Studio equipment was generally constructed of spare parts and modifications by engineers of the stations. One of the first commercial items in this category came from Gates Radio Co. It was a transcription turntable and resulted from Gates' work in developing non-synchronous talking picture equipment for disc and film. One of the first was supplied to WOI Ames, Iowa; similar units soon went to WEAF New York, WTAM Cleveland, WLS Chicago, and WLW Cincinnati. Gates was founded in 1922 by Henry C. Gates.

Early Radio Sponsors Few, Far Between

Real Estate Firm on WEAF Often Credited With First Commercial

The argument over who was the first radio sponsor may never be settled for there are numerous stations that claim to have broadcast the first commercial account.

It's an argument without solution because there is no central source of carefully kept records. Those who comb station files and libraries in search of the answer often come up with the date Aug. 28, 1922, on WEAF New York, then a 12-day-old outlet owned by AT&T.

That day WEAF broadcast a 10-minute paid commercial for a real estate development, Queensboro Corp., of Jackson Heights, N. Y. The sponsor bought other commercials Aug. 29, 30, 31 and Sept. 1, paying $100 for each 10-minute message.

By late September Tidewater Oil and american Express had joined the list. By its first birthday WEAF had over 30 advertisers. The list included R. H. Macy, American Hard Rubber Co., Metropolitan Life, Haynes autos, Gotham hosiery, Goldwin Picture Corp. I. Miller & Sons, Davega, Browning King, Lily Cup Co. and Corn Products. Co.

There's a problem of definitions in deciding who broadcast the first commercial. Newspapers, radio shops and others operating early broadcast stations plugged their own names, of course. And there were swap deals with stores for phonograph records.

Until superior documentation is presented, many radio historians prefer to use the WEAF citation as the first paid advertisement broadcast on a regularly scheduled commercial station.

KDKA Pittsburgh describes the Hamilton Music Store, in nearby Wilkinsburg, as the "first radio advertiser." During the 1919 experiments of 8XK, operated for Westinghouse by Dr. Frank Conrad, the Conrad vocal chords took a beating. The music store offered a continuing supply of records to save his voice if he would announce the records could be bought there. "The store promptly found that records played on the air sold better than others, according to KDKA, thus establishing a radio success story.

KCBS San Francisco, which traces its experimental emissions back to 1909, lists its first regional sponsor as Sperry Flour Co., which started a five-weekly cooking program on then KQW in 1926. Local merchants had bought time before this time, however. In 1911 Charles David Herrold, of Herrold College, San Jose engineering school, started record broadcasts in the Wiley B. Allen Co. store, playing hit tunes from the store's stock.

The Earle Anthony station in Los Angeles, KFI, started an opera series in 1924 under Standard Oil Co. of California sponsorship. The next year saw Walter Murphy Motors, Owl Drug and General Mills on KFI.

At KLZ Denver the first time sold was in 1920 - Joe Flood, the Singing Butcher Boy. He interspersed songs and jokes with spot announcements six evenings a week, 7-7:30. Cottrell's Men's Store has sponsored the same news program 31 years.

KMED Medford, Ore., sold time in the early 1920s. The station was shut down while all personnel pounded sidewalks selling time. This happened daily.

KIMN Denver, then KFEL, signed its first sponsor in the 1922-23 season. It was Elitch Gardens, amusement park and botanical spot. Elitch has been on nearly every summer.

The first sponsor of WMT Cedar Rapids, Ia. (then WJAM) was Iowa Electric Light & Power Co. That was in 1922 when the sponsor bought 2 1/2 hours daily for $100 a month - "$50 will be in cash," the contract read. Morris Sanford Co., office-book store, has a continuous 30-year record on the station and Killian's Department Store has been on continuously over 30 years. The power company is still on WMT.

The Goldstein-Migel department store has been on the air since the start of WACO Waco, Tex., and has been one of its most consistent advertisers.

Horn & Hardart last year celebrated the 33d anniversary of continuous advertising on WCAU Philadelphia. Hamady Bros. Food Markets, now 18 supermarkets, and Greenley Appliance Stores, a six-unit chain, have been on WFDF Flint, Mich., most of the four decades, along with several realtors. Strawbridge & Clothier department store was the original owner of WFIL Philadelphia, originally WFI.

WGN Chicago started its first commercial program, The Radio Floor Walker, in 1928. It featured variety, music and participating spots. There were early complaints about the "constant barrage of advertising."

A gasoline sponsor's successful use of radio had an unusual twist in Toledo, Ohio. This was in 1927 when George B. Storer and his brother-in-law, the late J. Harold Ryan, were building service stations for Speedene gasoline.

Speedene sales were booming, thanks to a cost-cutting device the young proprietors had figured out. They bypassed the cost of trucking gasoline to service stations by building the stations beside railroad sidings and sold two or three cents a gallon under the going retail rate.

Mr. Storer decided to buy some radio spots on WTAL Toledo. They were effective and he wound up as owner of the 50 w station. Call letters were changed to WSPD, symbolic of the gasoline brand. In the spring of 1928 WSPD was putting out 250 w and became the eighth member of the young CBS network.

That's how Storer Broadcasting Co. began. The next station was WGHP Detroit, which later became WXYZ. The Storer group has kept growing, acquiring more stations and entering larger markets.

The first commercial of WIP Philadelphia was on behalf of Hajoca Plumbing Supplies. The sale was made on a Gimbel's department stores sales slip, just like selling a pair of shoes.

WMAQ Chicago, NBC o&o station, recalls its origination of its first commercial network program starting in March 1925. The station presented a series of concerts for Victor Phonograph Co. over an improvised hook of 22 stations. It joined NBC in January 1927, moved to CBS the next September, and back to NBC when acquired by that network.

The details are a bit vague but the message was eloquent when WHAS Louisville signed its first sponsor, a Chicago tobacco firm. The advertiser offered three free cigars for response to his spot announcement. The second week he wired, "For God's sake, quit." WHAS explained, "He was swamped."

WHN New York went commercial in 1932, but not very commercial. Then in 1934 Sam Faust, still at WHN, started selling. Adam Hats bought 56 hours a week for a full year in 1934. Afterward it became a regular sponsor for many years. Mr. Faust's first sale was to Chauteau Martin Wines, a sponsor that has remained on WHN 28 years. He recalls the time a kid named Judy Garland was given a tryout on the WHN Amateur Hour. Audience reaction was wild. Judy took it from there.

WWJ Detroit, which made its debut in 1920, acquired a sponsor in February 1922 after the Detroit Symphony had broadcast a concert. "Thereafter, all remaining concerts during the season were broadcast, and the series was sponsored by the Detroit Bank," WWJ recalls. Expressions of appreciation and contributions came from distant areas, including Cuba.

The business side of broadcasting at one station was described this way: "WJAG (Norfolk, Neb.) remained strictly a news and public service projection of the daily newspaper of Gene Huse (Norfolk Daily News) until February 1926, when the increasing cost demands of his avocation created a necessity for accepting commercial revenue." Many of the station's records were lost in a flood. Mr. Huse, who died in 1961, had operated experimentally as early as 1912. The first advertiser was Carberry Seed Co., 1926. Eight others were signed in 1927, including Ryal-Miller Chevrolet. Buchanan-Thomas, Omaha agency, was the fourth sponsor signed.

When WNBH New Bedford, Mass., moved into a flossy hotel suite in 1925 its owner, Irving Vermilya, started looking around for some way to pay the bills. One of the first to agree to buy time was the local Unitarian Church which had been originating a program several years. The program is still on the air. "Advertising snowballed and we balanced the books and more," Mr. Vermilya said.

The first sponsor on KGW Portland, Ore., was an infantry captain who had a polo saddle for sale. That was in 1925 - the first and last commercial for quite a while. The first big client was Standard Oil Co. of California, which paid $100 a spot for six spots. The first rate card listed spots from $1 to $100 a minute, offering a tremendous discount. A florist account has been on since the mid-20s.

Still on KGY Olympia, Wash., is Mottman's Mercantile Co., which started in 1927.

Back in 1924 Earl Glade sold an hour to Salt Lake Knitting Co. for KSL Salt Lake City. The tag was $60. The outstanding event in the early history of KNBC San Francisco, then KPO, was the payment of $2,500 to Reinald Werrenrath to sing a performance sponsored by Southern Pacific Railroad. Hale Bros. department store once owned KPO but early records indicate no attempt was made to publicize this ownership.

[Note: Some of the information in the following article is open to dispute. More accurate information on some of the stations described in this article is available today on the Internet. Among other problems, some stations claim dates of licensure based on linking the stations to earlier experimental or amateur licenses, and the entries do not state that different call letters were then in use. - Jeff Miller]

Radio Stations 40 or More Years Old in 1962

WAPI, Birmingham, Ala. - - Founded as the 500 watt WMAV Auburn, Ala., on Oct. 3, 1922, the station was owned by Alabama Polytechnic Institute. In January 1925, WSY Birmingham was donated to the school which operated both stations until they were combined as WAPI. U. of Alabama and Alabama College joined in the ownership of WAPI in 1929. In 1937, the license was acquired by The Voice of Alabama Inc. Station subsequently increased to 10 kw (in 1952) and to 50 kw (in 1958). The Birmingham News Co. leased WAPI in 1953. When the News was sold to S. I. Newhouse in 1956, the lease was purchased and Newhouse became owner.

KOY, Phoenix, Ariz. - The outlet went on the air in April 1922 and was licensed as KFCB in September of that year. The original owner was Earl A. Nielsen. Call letters were changed to KOY in 1929, when the station was operating on 1390 kc with 500 watts. In 1937 the late Burridge D. Butler bought the station. Frequency was switched to 550 kc. The license was assigned to KOY Broadcasting Co. in 1951. KOY now has 5 kw.

KTAR, Phoenix, Ariz. - Charles and Warren McArthur started the station with 100 watts on June 21, 1922. The equipment was built and installed by the late Arthur C. Anderson. In 1925, ownership was transferred to the Electrical Equipment Co. of Phoenix, and the station began operating on 620 kc. In 1929, controlling interest in the station was purchased by the Arizona Publishing Co., call letters were changed to KTAR and corporate licensee to KTAR Broadcasting Co. In 1944, John J. Louis acquired control of the license.

KCLN Blytheville, Ark. - Founder in 1921 was C. L. (Dutch) Lintzenich, who operated the station with a power of 7.5 watts. The station was owned by Mr. Lintzenich and J. A. Bass. Harold L. Sudbury became the owner in 1944. In 1953 the station was authorized for 5 kw operation on 910 kc.

KMJ Fresno, Calif. - The Fresno Bee started KMJ on March 23, 1932. The station was operating with 50 watts in 1927, when the station was assigned 820 kc. The licensee, James McClatchy Co., became the McClatchy Broadcasting Co. in 1936. By that time the outlet was operating on 580 kc with 500 watts. It was granted 1 kw in 1937. The station began using 5 kw in 1939. Licensee became McClatchy Newspapers in 1957.

KFI Los Angeles, Calif. - Founded in April 1922 by the late Earle C. Anthony, pioneer auto dealer, the station increased its original 5 watt power to 500 watts before the year was out. In 1923 it assumed the KFI call letters and moved to 640 kc. KFI increased to 5 kw in 1926 and in July 1931 became the first 50 kw operation in Southern California.

KHJ Los Angeles, Calif. - C. R. Kieruff established the station on April 13, 1922. Operating with 5 watts, the station was located in a room on the roof of the old Los Angeles Times Building. The Times bought the call letters from Mr. Kieruff shortly thereafter. In 1927 Don Lee bought the station and operated it on 750 kc with 1 kw before switching to 930 kc in 1930. The outlet was sold to the General Tire Co. in 1950. Present licensee of the 5 kw station is RKO General Inc., owned by General Tire.

KNX Los Angeles, Calif. - Fred Christian put 6ADZ on the air from Los Angeles in September 1920. This 5 watt outlet was licensed as KNX on Dec. 8, 1921. Power was increased to 50 watts. In 1924 KNX was purchased by Guy Earl, owner of the Los Angeles Evening Express, who operated it until the mid-thirties when he sold it to CBS. In the twenties and early thirties power increases to 500 watts, 5 kw, 10 kw and 25 kw preceded KNX authorization for 50 kw operation. Station is on 1070 kc.

KDIA Oakland, Calif. - As KLS, the station was established in 1920-1921, by E. N. and S. W. Warner. Call letters were switched to KWBR in 1940, and to KDIA in 1959, when KDIA, Inc., owned by the Sonderling Stations, bought the station. KDIA operates on 1310 kc with 1 kw.

KEWB Oakland, Calif. - On May 3, 1922, KLX, 590 kc, 500 watts, was assigned to The Tribune Publishing Co. The licensee became the Tribune Bldg. Co. in 1933, and the station operated with 1 kw. It received its present 910 kc under the NARBA reallocation in 1941, and its power was increased to 5 kw in 1950. Crowell-Collier Broadcasting Corp. became the licensee in 1960 with the present call letters.

KFBK Sacramento, Calif. - On Feb. 2, 1922, the station then known as KVQ began operating with 5 watts. The owner was a partnership of the Sacramento Bee newspaper and the J. C. Hobrecht Co. In 1925, KFBK replaced KVQ and James McClatchy Co. assumed full control. The licensee became known as McClatchy Broadcasting Co. in 1936, with permission to use 5 kw. Under NARBA the station was assigned its present 1530 kc, and in 1948, it reached its present 50 kw.

KGB San Diego, Calif. - Under the call KFBC, the station was licensed to W. K. Azbill in July 1922. The owner assigned the license to W. K. Azbill & Union League Club in early 1927, and later in the year Arthur Wells Yale M. D. became the licensee. Dr. Yale sold the station a year later to Pickwick Broadcasting Corp. Call letters KGB were taken from the initials of George Bowles, vice president and manager. In 1931, Don Lee Inc. purchased the station. Marion Harris became licensee in 1954. The station operates on 1360 kc with 5 kw and 1 kw at night.

KCBS San Francisco, Calif. - It is reported that Professor Charles David Herrold began broadcasting in January 1909 with a 15 watt spark transmitter. The present KCBS is the direct lineal descendant of Prof. Herrold's station. In 1921, the station was issued KQW. Power was increased to 500 watts in 1925 and the outlet was sold to the First Baptist Church in San Jose. Fred J. Hart operated the station and a year later purchased it. Mr. Hart sold KQW in 1934 to Ralph Brunton and C. L. McCarthy, who operated it with 1 kw. The following year power was increased to 5 kw. CBS took over the station in 1949. The station, on 740 kc, began operating with 50 kw in 1951.

KNBC San Francisco, Calif. - The station, licensed as KPO, with a 50 watt transmitter, built by Joe Martineau, went on the air on April 17, 1922. Marshall, Reuben and Prentice Hale were the owners. The outlet increased its power to 500 watts in October 1922, and to 1 kw in 1926. Then the Chronicle Publishing Co. became co-owners with the Hale brothers. In 1927 the station went on its present 680 kc and the following year increased to 5 kw. In 1932, NBC bought the station and increased power to 50 kw. It became KNBC in 1947.

KSAN San Francisco, Calif. - Originally known as KDZX, the station was licensed on June 7, 1922. Since that time the outlet has had call letters KFVZ, KGTT, KGGC, and finally KSAN. The station was acquired by S. H. Patterson in 1938, when the call KSAN was adopted. In 1960, Mr. Patterson's son, Norwood, and his wife, Gloria, assumed control as a family group. The station which went to 1 kw in 1962, operates on 1450 kc.

KWG, Stockton, Calif. - Portable Wireless Telephone Co. started KWG on Dec. 6, 1921 on 1200 kc with 50 watts. McClatchy Broadcasting Co. purchased the station in 1937 and increased power ot 250 watts. The station which had been operating on 1230 kc since 1941, was sold to James Longe and Lewis B. Saslaw and licensed to Delta Broadcasting Co. in 1955. The licensee became Western Broadcasting Inc. in 1956. KWG Broadcasting Inc. became the licensee in 1957. KWG was sold by Robin Hill to Frank A. Axelson and O.R. Reighenbach in 1958. Hale Bondurant assumed control of the licensee in 1959. KMO Broadcasting Co. took over in 1960. The present licensee is Royal Bear Broadcasters Inc.

KIMN Denver, Colo. - The station signed on the air on July 4, 1922, with 50 watts and call letters KFEL. The licensee was Captain W. L. Winner. Eugene P. O'Fallon, an initial stockholder was sales manager. Mr. O'Fallon subsequently purchased the Winner interest and operated the station until 1954. At that time A. L. Glasmann bought the station, and switched call letters to KIMN. The station operates on 950 kc with 5 kw.

KLZ, Denver, Colo. - Established by Dr. W. D. Reynolds Jr., the station known as 9ZAF was broadcasting from Denver in 1919. It was licensed as KLZ on March 10, 1922 on 780 kc., 100 watts, to The Reynolds Radio Inc. During 1927 and 1928, five changes brought KLZ to 560 kc with 1 kw. In 1935, Dr. Reynolds transferred his interest to his wife and Bill Meyer who sold it to a group headed by E. K. Gaylord, president of the Oklahoma Publishing Co. In 1954 the station, by now operating with 5 kw, was sold to Time Inc., which became TLF Broadcasters Inc. and finally in 1961, Time-Life Broadcast Inc.

KFKA Greeley, Colo. - KFKA was licensed in May 1921. Professor Charles Valentine and H. E. Green started the station at Colorado State Teachers College (now Colorado State College). Around 1926, Prof. Valentine and Mr. Green organized Mid-Western Radio Corp. and assumed full operation of the station. Mr. Green became full owner upon Prof. Valentine's death in 1929, and the Green family still controls the station. In 1949 KFKA was moved to 1310 kc with 1 kw.

WDRC Hartford, Conn. - Franklin M. Doolittle founded WDRC in his home in New Haven in 1922. He moved, with his station, to Hartford in 1930. Today WDRC is owned by Richard D. Buckley and John B. Jaeger, who acquired the station in 1959. It is operated on 1360 kc with 5 kw.

WDEL Wilmington, Del. - Wilmington Electrical Specialty Co. became licensee of WDEL on July 22, 1922. The station was granted 1130 kc with 100 watts in 1927 and changed to 1010 kc later that year. The license was assigned to WDEL Inc. in 1928, and control of the company was assumed by J. Hale Steinman and John F. Steinman in 1937. The station was moved to 1150 kc (250 watts) by the NARBA in 1941. Power was increased to 5 kw in 1943. The license was assigned to Delmarva Broadcasting Co. in 1955.

WQAM Miami, Fla. - Electrical Equipment Co. owned WQAM until 1928, when the station was taken over by Mid-Continent Broadcasting Co. Storz Broadcasting Co. acquired the station in 1956. WQAM had been using 560 kc since 1929, and 5 kw day with 1 kw night since 1941.

WDAE Tampa, Fla. - L. G. McClung, who had been operating a station in St. Petersburg since at least 1921, sold his station to C. G. Mullen and in February 1922, Mr. Mullen received permission to build WDAE. As general manager of the Tampa Publishing Co., Mr. Mullen received his license on June 15, 1922. The outlet operated with 500 watts on 1100 kc. The present owners acquired WDAE in 1933. Today, licensed to Smiley Properties Inc., the station is on 1250 kc with 5 kw.

WSB Atlanta, Ga. - Signifying "Welcome South, Brother," WSB went on the air on March 15, 1922, and was licensed in April. The Atlanta Journal Co., licensees from the beginning, operated the station with 200 watts on 360 and 485 meters. In 1949, James M. Cox assumed control of the licensee, which became known as Atlanta Newspapers Inc. Ownership was transferred to the Cox family group in 1953. It is on 750 kc with 50 kw.

WMAZ Macon, Ga. - Mercer U. put WMAZ on the air in August 1922. The station which began as a physics experiment was licensed the following October. Mercer gave the station to the Macon Junior Chamber of Commerce, who leased the outlet to Southeastern Broadcasting Co. in 1930. Southeastern bought the station in 1932, and has owned it ever since. WMAZ was granted 50 kw with 10 kw and directional antenna nighttime in 1959. It operates on 940 kc.

WPAX Thomasville, Ga. - Founded on Dec. 26, 1922, by Hoyt Wimpy, WPAX operated with 10 watts. In 1961, WPAX was sold to Radio Thomasville Inc., Don Price, president, and is operated on 1240 kc with 250 watts.

KGU Honolulu, Hawaii - Advertiser Publishing Co. began broadcasting with 100 watts in May 1922. The station's original frequency was 940 kc, then 750 kc, and now 760 kc. It operates with 10 kw.

WAAF Chicago, Ill. - On April 30, 1922, WAAF was started as a public service of Drovers Journal, a cattleman's trade magazine. The early station was run by Carl Ulrich. Mr. Ulrich is present chief engineer of the station, operating on 950 kc with 1 kw. The license is held by Corn Belt Publishers.

WGN Chicago, Ill. - Licensed to Midwest Radio Central Inc. on May 19, 1922, with 1 kw, the station was known as WDAP. A year later, the station was purchased by the Chicago Board of Trade and subsequently by the Whitestone Co., owners of the Drake Hotel in Chicago. On June 1, 1924, The Chicago Tribune assumed control of the station and changed call letters to WGN. In 1925, WTAS and WCEE Elgin, Ill., were purchased to prepare for clear channel operation. The station began broadcasting on 720 kc in 1927. It now has 50 kw.

WMAQ Chicago, Ill. - Owned by the Fair Store and the Chicago Daily News, WGU went on the air on April 12, 1922. The station originally broadcast on 833 kc with about 100 watts. Call letters WMAQ were assumed in October 1922, and the outlet began broadcasting with a new 500 watt transmitter on 750 kc. In 1923, the Daily News bought the Fair Store's interest and switched to 670 kc. At that time WMAQ shared time with WQJ. In 1927, the Times bought WQJ and consolidated both stations as WMAQ on 670 kc. In 1931, the station was purchased by the NBC. Four years later, power was increased to 50 kw.

WDZ Decatur, Ill. - The station went on the air on March 17, 1921 from Tuscola, Ill. It was operated by a Mr. Bush with 10 watts. The station received 1 kw in 1937 and began operating on 1050 kc. Broadcasting from Decatur commenced in 1949. The outlet, owned by Mid-States Broadcasting Co. since 1958, has applied to increase power to 5 kw.

*WILL Urbana, Ill. - The U. of Illinois was granted an experimental license in October, 1921, for operation on 300-360 meters as 9XJ. Call letters WILL were assigned in 1928 and the station moved to 890 kc. In 1936, WILL was authorized to operate on its present 590 kc and, in 1939, the station received its present 5 kw.

*WBAA Lafayette, Ind. - Purdue U. was granted temporary call 9YB, to operate a wireless station in 1919. The school received the permit for WBAA in 1922. The station was off the air in 1929 because of a fire, but it was rebuilt the following summer and relicensed in 1930. Then it operated on 890 kc, sharing time with WILL at the U. of Illinois. The station received its present 920 kc in 1941, operating with 5 kw and 1 kw after sunset.

WSBT South Bend, Ind. - WGAZ went on the air on July 3, 1922. Licensed to the South Bend Tribune, under the ownership of the late Messrs. Elmer Crockett and F. A. Miller, the station operated with 100 watts. In 1924 the station was rebuilt with transmitter towers on the Tribune Bldg. and the following year call letters were changed to WSBT. In 1941 WSBT switched to its present 960 kc and its power was increased to 1 kw. The station was granted 5 kw in 1947.

*WOI Ames, Iowa - Iowa State College of Agriculture made its first broadcast on Nov. 21, 1921. The original 9YI call was changed to WOI, when the station was licensed on April 28, 1922. At the same time power was increased to 100 watts. The outlet's present 640 kc was assigned in 1929, when the station was given permission to broadcast with 3.5 kw. Two years later WOI increased to 5 kw. In 1959, the licensee became known as Iowa State U.

WMT Cedar Rapids, Iowa - On July 30, 1922, WJAM, forerunner of WMT went on the air with 20 watts. The station was built by Douglas M. (Tex) Perham. In 1928, WJAM was sold to Harry Shaw and call letters WMT, which stood for his newspaper The Waterloo Morning Tribune, were established. Mr. Shaw moved the station to Waterloo. Another station, originally W9CNF Cedar Rapids, established by Harry Paar in 1922, was purchased by John and Mike Cowles in 1931 with call letters KWCR. In 1934, the Cowles brothers bought WMT, moved its transmitter back to Cedar Rapids and retired call letters KWCR. IN 1944, the 5 kw station was acquired by American Broadcasting Stations Inc. It is on 600 kc.

WOC Davenport, Iowa - On Feb. 18, 1922, Karlowa Radio Co. of Rock Island, Ill., started station which had been broadcasting for some time earlier as 9BY with 5 watts. In May 1922, Palmer School of Chiropractic purchased the outlet and moved its equipment to Davenport. WOC was purchased by the Central Broadcasting Co., the late Dr. B. J. Palmer, president, along with WHO Des Moines, in 1930, and for some time the two stations were operated with a single 50 kw transmitter. In 1934, WOC returned to separate operation, utilizing the facilities of 5 kw KICK Carter Lake, Iowa. Licensed to Tri-City Broadcasting Co., subsidiary of Central, WOC operates on 1420 kc. Dr. David D. Palmer is president and owner.

KSO Des Moines, Iowa - FCC records show H. F. Paar as licensee on July 29, 1922. The call letters were KWCR. The station was in Cedar Rapids, operating on 1360 kc with 500 watts. The station was assigned to Cedar Rapids Broadcasting Co. in 1931 and moved to Des Moines in 1935. Iowa Broadcasting Co. became licensee in 1936 and the outlet operating on 1430 kc became known as KSO. Kingsley Murphy assumed control in 1944 and the license was assigned to Murphy Broadcasting Co. in 1946. KSO was sold in 1958 to KSO Inc., which is controlled by Joe Floyd, N. L. Bentson, Edmond R. Ruben and Anton J. Moe. The station operates on 1460 kc with 5 kw.

*WSUI Iowa City, Iowa - Granted an experimental license in 1919, the station operated with call letters 9YA until June 26, 1922. At that time call letters WHAA were assigned to the station along with 834 kc and 200 watts. Later in the year power was increased to 500 watts, and in 1925 call letters WSUI were adopted. In 1935, the FCC granted the station 1 kw, and power was increased to 5 kw in 1940. The State of Iowa is licensee. WSUI is on 910 kc.

KFH Wichita, Kan. - First record of KFH was a contract providing for a radio station to be established by the Lander Radio Co. D. M. Good and Francis J. Lander built a 50 watt transmitter for the station and broadcast under the call WEAH. The outlet was sold to the Board of Trade in 1923, and was purchased by the Rigby-Gray Hotel Co. in 1925. John Rigby, president of that company, is president of the KFH Radio Co., present licensee. Call letters KFH were adopted in 1926. Two years later the station was assigned 1300 kc with 1 kw. It got its present power, 5 kw, in 1935, and its present 1330 kc in 1941.

WLAP Lexington, Ky. - L. W. Benedict was granted the license to operate from Louisville on Sept. 15, 1922. The station was moved near Okalna in 1928. The license was assigned to American Broadcasting Corp. of Kentucky in 1929 and power was increased to 100 watts on 1200 kc. The station was moved to Lexington in 1934. Licensee became American Broadcasting Corp. in 1944. Community Broadcasting Co. became licensee in 1957 and WLAP Radio Inc., in 1958. Thoroughbred Broadcasting Co. became licensee in 1961. The station, on 630 kc, operates with 5 kw day, 1 kw night.

WHAS Louisville, Ky. - Credo Harris, manager until 1942 retirement, and Emmet Graft established the station in April 1922 for Judge Robert Bingham, owner of the Courier-Journal. The station was broadcasting with 5 kw in 1928, with 25 kw by 1932, and with 50 kw in 1933. Barry Bingham has been licensee since 1937. WHAS is on 840 kc.

WWL New Orleans, La. - Loyola U. first broadcast with a 10 watt transmitter on March 31, 1922. WWL was authorized 100 watts in 1924, and 500 watts in 1927 on 1220 kc. On March 31, 1929, the station began broadcasting with 5 kw, and in 1932 with 10 kw. WWL got 50 kw on 870 kc in 1937.

KEEL Shreveport, La. - Initially the 10 watt WDAN, in 1922, the outlet changed its call to KSBA with 250 watts shortly thereafter. S. R. Elliot and A. C. Steere purchased the station in 1929, changed its call to KTBS and operated with 1 kw. The Shreveport Times owned the station in 1942, when it was acquired by a corporation headed by George Wray Sr. Power was increased to 10 kw with 5 kw at night, in 1949. The McLendon Group bought the station in 1957, and the call letters were changed to KEEL. In March of this year, the station was acquired by the Lin Broadcasting Corp.. The station, which operates on 710 kc, is due to begin broadcasting with 50 kw day, 5 kw night, this spring.

WCAO Baltimore, Md. - With 250 watts on 834 kc, WCAO went on the air on May 16, 1922. The original owner and manager was Robert V. O. Swarthout of Monumental Radio Co. Power was increased to 250 watts on 600 kc in 1929 and subsequent power changes brought the station up to 5 kw in 1942. Mr. Swarthout operated the station until 1956, when it was purchased by Plough Broadcasting Inc.

WFBR Baltimore, Md. - With call letters WEAR, the station went on the air on June 8, 1922. The 10 watt outlet was owned by the Baltimore American News Publishing Co., Frank Munsey, owner. It was taken over in 1924 by the Field Officers Assn. of the 5th Regiment, Maryland National Guard and the station became WFBR. The Baltimore Radio Show Inc. became licensee in 1927. The late Robert S. Maslin Sr. was president until 1954. HIs son is president of the licensee today. The station which has been operating with 5 kw since 1941, is on 1300 kc.

WBZ, Boston, Mass. - Westinghouse Electric Co. established WBZ on Sept. 19, 1921. The station operated with 100 watts from Springfield, Mass. Call letters WBZ were moved to a new Westinghouse outlet which was built in Boston in 1924 and the Springfield station became WBZA. The two are synchronized. WBZ operates on 1030 kc with 50 kw.

WEZE Boston, Mass. - Founded on July 31, 1922, station functioned as key station (as WNAC) of the Yankee Network. Ownership passed from Shepard mercantile family to General Tire & Rubber in 1942, which in turn sold it to Vic Diehm Associates in 1953. WEZE Inc., which acquired the facility in December 1957, now operates it as WEZE on 1260 kc with 5 kw.

WNAC Boston, Mass. - With a power of 100 watts, WNAC went on the air on July 31, 1922. John Shepard was the owner. Power was increased to 500 watts in 1924, subsequent power increases brought the station to 50 kw in 1953. There were many corporate name changes throughout the years, but only two owners. Shepard Stores, the first licensee, and General Tire & Rubber Co., which purchased WNAC in 1943. The station is now operated by the Yankee Network Division of RKO General Inc., wholly owned subsidiary of General Tire & Rubber. WNAC operates on 680 kc, the facility it bought from WLAW Lawrence, Mass., in 1953 and moved to Boston in 1957.

WSAR Fall River, Mass. - Owned by Doughty & Welch Electric Co., 50 watt WSAR was licensed on Sept. 21, 1921. The station increased power to 1 kw in the late 20's. In 1945, K&M Publishing Co. purchased the outlet, and in three years power was up to 5 kw on 1480 kc.

WNBH New Bedford, Mass. - As WDAU, it was founded by Irving Vermilya on May 21, 1921, and broadcast with 50 watts. In 1923, the station was moved from New Bedford to Mattapoisett, Mass., and began operating as WBBG with 250 watts. The outlet was moved to the New Bedford Hotel in 1925 with WNBH call letters. In 1930, operation was transferred to the Atlas Tack Corp. and sold in 1934 to E. Anthony and Sons Inc., present owner.

WJR Detroit, Mich. - Began May 4, 1922, as WCX, as 500 watt outlet owned by the Detroit Free Press. WCX was joined by WJR in 1925 as a 5 kw operation. WJR had been formed by Jewett Radio & Phonograph Co. on Aug. 15, 1925. On Dec. 18, 1926, option to buy WJR-WCX was acquired by G. A. Richards and associates (Leo Fitzpatrick, John Patt, P. M. Thomas and M. R. Mitchell). Option was exercised Sept. 1, 1927 and the present corporation (Goodwill Stations Inc.) was formed in January 1929. Meantime, WJR-WCX had been assigned (on Nov. 11, 1928) to 750 kc clear channel. WJR acquired all assets of WCX in 1929. WJR's power went ot 10 kw in 1931, and to 50 kw in 1935.

WWJ Detroit, Mich. - Began broadcasting on Aug. 20, 1920 under experimental license as 8MK with 20 watts. The Detroit News was the original licensee. WBL was assigned to the station on Oct. 13, 1921, and station increased power to 500 watts. Later that year letters WWJ were adopted. In 1936 power was increased to 5 kw on 950 kc.

*WKAR East Lansing, Mich. - After experimental broadcasting dating back to 1917, WKAR was licensed on Aug. 18, 1921, to Michigan State U. The frequency was changed to present 870 kc in 1936 and power increased to 5 kw in 1939.

WFDF Flint, Mich. - Franklin D. Fallian began broadcasting as WEAA on May 25, 1922. In 1925, he changed the call letters to his initials, FDF. In 1930, WFDF was broadcasting on 1310 kc with 100 watts. In 1933, the major portion of the licensee, Flint Broadcasting Co. was sold to the Loeb Brothers. In 1940 power was increased to 1 kw and frequency to 910 kc. IN 1948 control of the station was acquired by the Trebit Corp. In 1957, power was increased to 5 kw. Since June 1961, WFDF Flint Corp. has owned the station.

*WCAL Northfield, Minn. - St. Olaf College has owned WCAL since it was first licensed on May 6, 1922. WCAL was granted its present 5 kw on 760 kc in 1938.

KMBC Kansas City, Mo. - Arthur B. Church put KMBC on the air on April 5, 1921. The station's call letters were WPE in 1922, and when the Mormon church took over in 1923, call was changed to KFIX. The station was assigned to Midland Broadcasting Co. in 1927. Metropolitan Broadcasting Co. now operates the outlet on 980 kc with 5 kw.

WDAF Kansas City, Mo. - The Kansas City Star owned the station which went on the air on Feb. 16, 1922. They sold it to National Tv Corp. in 1958. Transcontinent Tv Corp. purchased the station in 1960. WDAF operates on 610 kc with 5 kw.

WHB Kansas City, Mo. - Originally owned by Emory J. Sweeney of the Sweeney Automotive & Electric School, WHB went on the air April 15, 1922. The station had 500 watts. In 1929, it was assigned 860 kc. The late Charles R. Cook purchased the outlet in 1930 and it was licensed to the Cook Paint & Varnish Co. In 1948, WHB moved to 710 kc with 10 kw. Storz Broadcasting Co. bought the station in 1954.

KSD St. Louis, Mo. - Licensed on March 14, 1922, to the Pulitzer Publishing Co., KSD operated as the Post-Dispatch radio station. Initial power was 20 watts. The station began operating early on 550 kc and in 1946 was granted 5 kw.

WEW St. Louis, Mo. - Jesuit St. Louis U. was licensed for WEW on March 23, 1922. The school operated WEW until 1955, when the license was assigned to the Barrington Co. WEW, Inc., controlled by Franklin Broadcasting Co., became licensee in 1961. WEW operates on 770 kc with 1 kw.

WIL St. Louis, Mo. - On the air since February 1922, WIL was licensed on April 5 of that year. The license was assigned to Missouri Broadcasting Corp. in 1928. The station changed to 1430 kc with 5 kw in 1949. Balaban Stations acquired WIL in 1957.

KFBB Great Falls, Mont. - The F. A. Buttrey Co. was the first licensee July 11, 1922. The outlet operated on 1090 kc with 50 watts until 1928, when it went on 1360 with 250 watts. The station began on 1280 kc with 1 kw in 1930, and on 1310 kc with 5 kw in 1941. J. P. Wilkins assumed control of the licensee in 1952 and in 1954, the licensee change its name to Wilkins Broadcast Inc. KFBB Broadcasting Corp. became licensee in 1960.

WJAG, Norfolk, Neb. - Publisher of the Norfolk Daily News, the late Gene Huse, was granted WJAG's first license on July 26, 1922. The original power of 100 watts on 833 kc was increased to 200 watts on 1110 kc in 1926, and to 1 kw on 1060 kc in 1929. It was assigned 780 kc in 1944.

KMEO Omaha, Neb. - Omaha Grain Exchange founded the station as WAAW in February 1922. The 15 watt operation was changed to 100 watts later in the year and to 500 watts by 1924. WAAW switched from 830 kc to 1080 kc in this period. In 1928, it was assigned 660 kc. The station was purchased by the Omaha World Herald Publishing Co. in 1939 and call letters were changed to KOWH. Mid-Continent Broadcasting Co. bought the station in 1949 and sold it to National Weekly Inc., in 1957. At that time the station became known as KMEO.

WLNH Laconia, N. H. - WKAV received its license on Aug. 22, 1922. The station had 750 watts on 360 meters. It was owned by the Laconia Radio Club. In 1934, the station began operating with 5 kw, and the licensee changed its name to Northern Broadcasting Co. Present licensee, WLNH Inc., was formed this year. It currently operates on 1350 kc with 5 kw.

WHBI Newark, N. J. - Licensed Mar. 11, 1922, to May Radio Broadcasting Corp., the station was called WGCP. FRC records show the station on 1070 kc with 500 watts in 1927. Later in the year the station was on 1250 kc with 250 watts. The station was granted 1 kw in 1934 and became WHBI in 1935. It broadcasts with 2.5 kw day and 1 kw night sharing time on 1280 kc with WADO New York, owned by Bartell Broadcasters. Bartell took over WHBI this year and closed it down to permit WADO full occupancy of 1280 kc.

KOB Albuquerque, N. M. - The early experimental predecessor of KOB began in 1920 as 5XD. The station, which was built by Dr. Ralph Goddard, received the KOB call letters with his license on April 5, 1922. The station went through a series of frequency changes, and finally in 1941 it received a temporary permit to operate on 770 kc, where it is today. That same year power was increased to 50 kw. The station, which had been purchased by the Albuquerque Journal in 1936, was sold to Time-Life Inc. in 1951. KSTP Inc. purchased the outlet in 1957.

WGR Buffalo, N. Y. - WGR went on the air May 22, 1922. The late I. R. Lounsberry was president and general manager. During the 30's and 40's, WGR was part of the Buffalo Broadcasting Corp. Transcontinental Television Corp. acquired the station in 1957. WGR is on 550 kc with 5 kw.

WHCU Ithaca, N. Y. - Cornell U., the present owner, received its license for station 8YC on May 16, 1916. This station preceded WEAI, which was licensed on Jan. 30, 1923. The new station had 500 watts power. Frequency was changed from 1050 kc to 1180 kc in 1924. The station was operating on 1270 kc with 1 kw in 1930. It was leased to the Elmira Gazette from 1932 to 1940. The frequency was changed to 1040 kc in 1934, and to 850 in 1939. The station, which is now known as WHCU, operates on 870 kc.

WABC New York, N. Y. - As WJZ Newark, station went on the air on Oct. 1, 1921. Licensee was Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. WJZ in 1926, under new ownership of RCA, became the New York key of NBC's Blue Network. WJZ was sold in 1943 to Edward J. Noble. American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres Inc. acquired WJZ in 1953 and the WABC call letters were assumed. WABC is 770 kc with 50 kw.

WHN New York, N. Y. - Originally licensed to George Schubel on March 18, 1922, the station broadcast with 250 watts on 760 kc. In 1923 Marcus Loew Booking Agency bought the station and operated it for 39 years. In 1932, WHN merged with WOAO, WPAP and WRNY from the area and began broadcasting with 500 watts. Two power boosts in the next three years brought WHN to 5 kw and in 1940 the FCC granted WHN 50 kw on 1050 kc. In 1948, call letters were changed to WMGM, but when Storer Broadcasting Co. purchased the outlet early this year, call letters WHN were restored.

WNBC New York, N. Y. - As WEAF, operating with 500 watts, the station went on the air Aug. 16, 1922. W. E. Harkness was manager. The station was sold to RCA in 1926. Call letters WNBC were adopted in 1946, but were changed to WRCA in 1954. Then in 1960 the station resumed WNBC. It is on 660 kc with 50 kw.

WOR New York, N. Y. - Licensed as a 250 watt outlet on Feb. 22, 1922, WOR was located in Newark. By 1931, the station had 5 kw power. On 710 kc, the station began using 50 kw in 1935. initial licensee Bamberger Broadcasting Service Inc. became controlled by R. H. Macy & Co. in 1948, and the following year the license was assigned to General Teleradio Inc. The license was assigned to Don Lee Broadcasting System in 1952, to RKO Pictures Inc. in 1955, RKO Teleradio Pictures Inc. in 1956, and finally to RKO General Inc. in 1959.

WHAM Rochester, N. Y. - The U. of Rochester put the station on the air July 11, 1922. Power was 100 watts. Stromberg Carlson Co. became licensee in 1927, and power was raised to 5 kw. It was increased to 25 kw in 1933 and later the same year to 50 kw. The current owner, Genesee Broadcasting Corp., acquired the outlet in 1959. Operation is on 1180 kc.

WGY Schenectady, N. Y. - The station went on the air Feb. 20, 1922. WGY was assigned 790 kc in 1923, and by 1925 was experimenting with 50 kw. The station received authorization to use 50 kw in 1926, and the following year to experiment with 100 kw, then 200 kw in 1930. The original owner, General Electric Co., still broadcasts with 50 kw, now on the 810 kc allocated under NARBA in 1941.

WFBL Syracuse, N. Y. - Operation began in February 1922 with call letters WLAH. The station was previously in amateur and experimental activity dating back to 1912. The late Samuel Woodsworth owned the early station. Through the years power has gone from 100 watts to the present 5 kw, and frequency is 1390 kc. Present call letters were adopted in 1924. The outlet was purchased by Samuel H. Cook, Oscar F. Soule and Robert G. Soule in 1932. Present owner, First Broadcasting Corp., acquired the station in 1956.

WSYR Syracuse, N. Y. - At the home of its founder, Clive Meredith of Cazenovia, the station as WMAC began operating on Sept. 15, 1922. The 250 watt outlet was purchased by Col. Harry C. Wilder and his father Mark S. Wilder in 1932. Power was increased to 1 kw in 1936 and to 5 kw in 1941 on 870 kc. Col. Wilder sold the station to S. I. New house in 1948, but continued to direct operations.

*WHAZ Troy, N. Y. - After several months of testing, WHAZ went on the air Sept. 11, 1922. The station, owned by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, has had the same call and licensee ever since. It is 1 kw on 1330 kc.

WBT Charlotte, N. C. - Early station operations were under the call 4XD at the home of Fred Laxton. WBT was licensed to Mr. Laxton, Fred Bunker and Earl Gluck in April 1922. The station was purchased by Carolina States Electric Co. and Jim McMillan in 1925. It was sold to C. C. Coddington Jr. in 1926. The present owner, Jefferson Standard Life Insurance bought the outlet in 1945 and operates on 1110 kc with 50 kw.

WDAY Fargo, N. D. - Earl C. Reineke founded WDAY on May 22, 1922. Mr. Reineke operated the station with 50 watts on 360 meters (834 kc). The power was increased to its present 5 kw in 1935. In 1961, Forum Publishing Co. became the owner of WDAY Inc., corporate licensee, when Mr. Reineke disposed of his majority stock. The station operates on 970 kc.

WLW Cincinnati, Ohio - On March 3, 1921, 8CR was started in the home of Powel Crosley Jr., with 20 watts. Licensed to the Crosley Manufacturing Co., the station became WLW on March 2, 1922, operating on 360 meters with 50 watts. The following September, power was increased to 500 watts, and in 1925 to 5 kw. The Federal Radio Commission assigned WLW to 700 kc in 1927 and the following year WLW moved from Northside to Mason, Ohio, and installed a 50 kw transmitter.

KYW Cleveland, Ohio - This Westinghouse station was first licensed on May 15, 1922, to the Willard Storage Battery Co. It was operated on 770 kc with 1 kw. When the Federal Radio Commission came in in 1927, power was increased to 5 kw. In 1928, the license was assigned to WTAM & WEAR Inc. Power was increased to 50 kw in 1929. The licensee name was amended to WTAM Inc. in 1930, and later in the year the station was acquired by NBC. In 1941, KYW was assigned to its present 1100 kc. Westinghouse Broadcasting Co. bought the station in 1955.

WHK Cleveland, Ohio - As a 500 watt commercial outlet, WHK went on the air on March 5, 1922 on 830 kc. The original licensee was Warren Cox. In 1934, the Plain Dealer bought the station. Metropolitan Broadcasting Stations (a division of Metromedia Inc.) purchased WHK in 1958. Station is on 1420 kc with 5 kw.

WCOL Columbus, Ohio - As WMAN, M. A. Pixley went on the air in 1922 with 5 watts. His station became known as WSEN in 1928. WCOL letters were adopted in 1936. The outlet was purchased by Air Trails Inc. in 1952, and in 1960 the power was increased to 1 kw on 1230 kc.

*WOSU Columbus, Ohio - An experimental license granted on April 20, 1920, authorized Ohio State University to operate on 200 and 375 meters with 1.8 watts. The station was assigned call letters WEAO on June 3, 1922, and raised to 650 watts. In 1933, the outlet was given permission to broadcast with 1 kw as WOSU. In 1941, on 820 kc, the station began broadcasting with 5 kw, limited to local sunset at Columbus.

WING Dayton, Ohio - Licensed for 5 watts on May 24, 1921, to Stanley M. Krohn Jr., the station carried the call letters WXAX. The station was known as WDBS in 1922, WSMK in 1926 and WING in 1940. Mr. Krohn was the owner until 1940, when he sold the station to Charles Sawyer, the present owner. It assumed its present 1410 kc, 5 kw operation in 1941.

WSPD Toledo, Ohio - Going on the air in 1921, the station was acquired in 1928 by Fort Industries (now Storer Broadcasting Co.) which has retained the license since. WSPD operates on 1370 kc with 5 kw.

*WNAD Norman, Okla. - In September 1922, Maurice Prescott, a student of engineering at the U. of Oklahoma, interested a group of students in building a station. The outlet went through several frequency and power changes; down to 50 watts, up to 100 watts and finally was granted 1 kw in 1934, and 640 kc in 1940.

WKY Oklahoma City, Okla. - Operation began when Earl C. Hull started broadcasting with an experimental 20 watt transmitter as 5XT in January 1920. Mr. Hull was licensed for WKY in April 1921 on 1040 kc. The Oklahoma Publishing Co. bought WKY in 1928 and began broadcasting with a new 1 kw transmitter on 900 kc. In 1956 corporate licensee was changed form WKY Radiophone Inc. to WKY Tv System Inc. The station operates on 930 kc with 5 kw.

KAST Astoria, Ore. - Going on the air in 1922, KAST operated as a 100 watt daytime outlet in its earlier years. The station was purchased by Astoria Broadcasting Co. in July 1935. It now operates on 1370 kc with 1 kw.

*KOAC Corvallis, Ore. - On Dec. 7, 1922, the Federal Radio Commission designated KFDJ for Oregon State U. The station placed a 500 watt transmitter in operation in 1925. Call letters were changed to KOAC in 1926. Power was increased to 1 kw in 1928 and the station received its present 550 kc. In 1940, it was granted 5 kw.

KMED Medford, Ore. - In October 1922, as KFAY, station went on the air with 50 watts. It went thor;ugh several power changes until 1948 when it began operating with 5 kw and 1 kw at night. The original owner, William Virgin, died in 1927 and his wife Blanche assumed station ownership. Mrs. Virgin sold the outlet to the present owner, Radio Medford Inc., in 1950. The station operates on 1440 kc.

KGW Portland, Ore. - The Oregonian Publishing Co. went on the air on March 25, 1922. In November of that year KGW went on with 500 watts and increased to 1 kw in 1926. The station was granted permission to operate with 5 kw in 1933. King Broadcasting Co. acquired the station in 1953. KGW is on 620 kc.

WSAJ Grove City, Pa. - Amateur station 8CO was licensed with 1 kw to Grove City College in the fall of 1914. This station was the forerunner of WSAJ. In 1921, the outlet was licensed as WSAJ. Dr. Herbert W. Harmon built the station's first transmitter. The present 100 watt transmitter operating on 1340 kc was installed in 1950.

WKBO Harrisburg, Pa. - Station went on the air in 1922. The Keystone Broadcasting Corp. purchased the outlet in 1935. It is operated on 1230 kc with 250 watts.

WGAL Lancaster, Pa. - WGAL has been operating since June 1922. The original licensee, WGAL Inc. (Steinman Stations), still operates the station. The original 10 watt station now operates on 1490 kc with 1 kw.

WCAU Philadelphia, Pa. - WCAU began broadcasting with 250 watts from Philadelphia in 1922. It was using 500 watts by 1924. The station was acquired by Dr. Leon Levy and Isaac D. Levy in 1925. They increased power to 1 kw in 1928, and to 10 kw a year later. The outlet was finally given 50 kw in 1932. It was purchased by the Philadelphia Record in 1946, and re-sold to the Philadelphia Bulletin Publishing Co. the following year. CBS bought the station in 1958. WCAU is on 1210 kc.

WDAS Philadelphia, Pa. - WIAD went on the air in 1922 from the living room of Howard Miller with a power of 100 watts. Call letters were changed to WELK a few years later. The station was purchased by Alexander W. Dannebaum and Maurice Steppacher in 1932 and changed to WDAS. William Goldman of the Goldman Theatre chain bought the station in 1947. Max M. Leon, present owner, acquired the station in 1950. It operates on 1480 kc with 5 kw and 1 kw at night.

WFIL Philadelphia, Pa. - WFI began as a 250 watt station on March 17, 1922. The original owner was Strawbridge and Clothier department store. In 1934, the station combined with WLIT and WFIL assuming the WFIL call letters. The Albert M. Greenfield interests was owner of the new station. Triangle Publications Inc. purchased the outlet in 1946 and the following year power was increased to 5 kw. The station operates at 5 kw.

WIP Philadelphia, Pa. - With call letters WIP, picked from a hat, Gimbel Brothers' Department Store became licensee on March 17, 1922. The power was the same as it is today, 5 kw. Benedict Gimble, the station's first manager, bought the station prior to its sale to Metropolitan Broadcasting, division of Metromedia Inc., present owners. WIP currently operates on 610 kc.

KDKA Pittsburgh, Pa. - This station carried its first regularly scheduled broadcast on Nov. 20, 1920. It was first licensed to Dr. Frank Conrad with the call 8XK in August 1916. Dr. Conrad's license was cancelled just after World War I commenced, along with all amateur licenses, but was renewed in 1920. Dr. Conrad transferred his station to Westinghouse Broadcasting Co. in 1924. KDKA operates on 1020 kc with 50 kw.

KQV Pittsburgh, Pa. - Operation commenced in 1919, when KQV was amateur station 8ZAE. The Doubleday Hill Electric Co. of Pittsburgh licensed the station as KQV in January 1922. Ownership was transferred to the Allegheny Broadcasting Co. in 1944. The station received 5 kw in 1946. It broadcasts on 1410 kc.

WJAS Pittsburgh, Pa. - Founded by S. A. Pickering, H. J. Brennan and associates, known as Pittsburgh Radio Supply House Inc., the station went on the air on Dec. 2, 1922 with 500 watts. The outlet was purchased from its original owners by NBC in 1957 and call letters were changed to WAMP. In 1960, however, the station brought back the call letters WJAS. Operation is on 1320 kc with 50 kw.

WRYT Pittsburgh, Pa. - WCAE went on the air on May 4, 1922. In 1926, original licensee, Kaufmann & Baer Department Store, sold the station to Gimbel Brothers. In 1930, power was increased to 1 kw and the following year the station, organized as WCAE Inc., was sold to Pitt Publishing Co., a subsidiary of the Hears Corp. Power was raised to 5 kw in 1935. The station changed its call letters to WRYT in 1961. It is now on 1250 kc.

WRAW Reading, Pa. - Station began operating in September 1922. WRAW Inc. took over the outlet in 1959 and operates it on 1340 kc with 250 watts.

WBAX Wilkes-Barre, Pa. - Began operations on May 1, 1922. WBAX was licensed to John H. Stenger Jr. and Anna Stenger throughout most of its history. P. A. L. Broadcasters Inc. became licensee in 1961. The station operates on 1240 kc with 250 watts.

WEJL Scranton, Pa. - Owned by the Scranton Times, WRAY was licensed on Nov. 29, 1922. The station was using transmitting facilities of WLAO. In 1923, the Times began broadcasting over its own facilities with 10 watts. The owner was Edward J. Lynett Sr. Power was increased to 50 watts, and the station was operating on 280 meters in 1923. It was known as WQAN prior to becoming WEJL. It now operates on 630 kc with 500 watts.

WKAQ San Juan, P. R. - WKAQ began broadcasting on Dec. 3, 1922. It was licensed on 1240 kc with 500 watts. The owner was a subsidiary of I. T. T. Radio Corp. of Puerto Rico. Power was increased to 1 kw in 1932. El Mundo Broadcasting Co. purchased the station in 1949 and converted it into WKAQ-Radio El Mundo, operating on 620 kc with 5 kw.

WEAN Providence, R. I. - Originally licensed to the Shepard Co. of Providence and Boston, WEAN went on the air June 2, 1922. As a member of the Yankee Network, the station became controlled by the General Tire & Rubber Co. in 1942. Later it was licensed to General Teleradio Inc. The Providence Journal Co. acquired ownership in 1954. The station is on 790 kc.

WJAR Providence, R. I. - As The Outlet Broadcasting Station, WJAR went on the air on Sept. 6, 1922. The Outlet Co., licensee, operated the station on 360 meters. The station was installed by Thomas P. Giblin. Still owned by the same company, WJAR operates on 920 kc with 5 kw.

KGFX Pierre, S. D. - Mrs. Ida McNeil, present owner and operator of the station, reports that she and her husband operated as 9ZP in June 1916. With a power of 200 watts, they broadcast on about 324 kc (sic). In 1927, call letters were changed to KGFX. Mrs. McNeil maintains the same power, on 630 kc, today.

*KUSD Vermillion, S. D. - The U. of South Dakota began broadcasting with an experimental station with 1 kw in 1919. KUSD was given 890 kc with 500 watts in 1928. In 1950, the station received its present 690 kc, 1 kw facilities.

WNAX Yankton, S. D. - WNAX went on the air as a commercial station Nov. 9, 1922. In 1926, D. B. Gurney and the Gurney Nursery Co. took over operation of the outlet, and in 1927, the station was operated with 1 kw. The station was purchased by the Cowles Broadcasting Co. in 1938 and power was increased to 5 kw with 1 kw at night. WNAX, 570 kc, was sold to Peoples Broadcasting Corp., subsidiary of the Nationwide Insurance Co. of Columbus, Ohio, in 1958.

WNOX Knoxville, Tenn. - On Nov. 3, 1921, WNAV was established as a 50 watt outlet. The station burned two years later. It was rebuilt in 1925 and relicensed as WNX. The original owner was the Peoples Telephone Co. of Knoxville. The station was purchased by S. E. Adcock in 1927 and shortly thereafter sold to Sterchi Brothers furniture chain. In 1929, Liberty Life Insurance Co. bought the outlet and installed a 2.5 kw transmitter. In 1935, Continental Radio Co., later Scripps-Howard RAdio Inc., bought the station, changed form the original frequency of 560 kc to 1010 kc and installed 5 kw day, 1 kw night. In 1942, it increased to 10 kw on 990 kc. Name of the licensee was changed to Scripps-Howard Broadcasting Co. in 1962.

WREC Memphis, Tenn. - From Coldwater, Miss., in 1919-1920, Hoyt B. Wooten broadcast as 5RK. Mr. Wooten built KFNG in Coldwater in 1922, and received a license to operate on 1370 kc with 10 watts. The station was moved near Memphis in 1926 and call letters changed to WREC. From its new location WREC operated on 600 kc with 1 kw. In 1936, power was increased to its present 5 kw. WREC is still owned by Mr. Wooten.

KGNC Amarillo, Tex. - The late J. Laurance Martin founded WDAG in May 1922. In late 1922, E. B. Gish started KGRS in Amarillo, and both stations were allocated 1410 kc. They operated on a split time basis until 1935, when both stations were purchased by a group led by the late Gene Howe. KGNC was the product of combination. In 1941 the station shifted to 1440 kc with 5 kw. A switch to 710 kc with 10 kw came in 1947.

WTAW Bryan, Tex. - Original licensee of WTAW was Texas A&M, College Station. WTAW was licensed on Oct. 7, 1922. The station operated on 1150 kc with 1 kw. In 1957, the college sold the outlet at a public auction to R. E. (Lee) Glasgow. In 1962 Radio Bryan Inc., present owner, purchased the station. It is operated on 1150 kc with 1 kw.

WFAA Dallas, Tex. - Employing the talent of L. B. Henson, who aided "Dad" Garrett in building WRR in Dallas, the Dallas Morning News had a 150 watt station built. It was licensed and went on the air on June 26, 1922. A. H. Belo Corp., owner of the licensee, still controls the station, which operates on 570 kc, sharing 50 kw facilities with WBAP Ft. Worth.

WRR Dallas, Tex. - As a communications system for the local fire department, WRR began broadcasting with 20 watts in 1920, with firemen doing the air personality work. The transmitter was built by "Dad" Garrett. Power was increased to 100 watts in 1921, and to 500 watts in 1925. WRR began operating as an organized station around 1927 when a manager was hired. IN 1940 the outlet was granted its present 5 kw. The City of Dallas has been licensee of WRR since its inception. The station operates on 1310 kc.

KFJZ Fort Worth, Tex. - KFJZ began broadcasting from Fort Worth in 1922 with 100 watts. A. P. Barrett of the Tarrant Broadcasting Co. bought the station in 1932. The Texas State Network purchased the station from him in 1936. Gene Cagle, who began with the station as announcer and salesman in 1933, is the present owner. KFJZ operates with 5 kw on 1270 kc.

WBAP Fort Worth, Tex. - Carter Publications Inc. signed WBAP on the air in May 1922. Responsible for the first operation was Harold Hough, present director of broadcasting operations for Carter. The initial broadcasts were made on 834 kc with 10 w. Power was increased to 1.5 kw in 1923; to 10 kw in 1929 and in 1932, to 50 kw. The station had been operating on 820 kc since 1941.

KILE Galveston, Tex. - Went on the air in 1922. The station was licensed to KLUF Broadcasting Co. George Roy Clough was the owner until 1957. Present owners, Island Broadcasting Co., acquired the outlet at that time. The station operates on 1400 kc with 250 watts.

KTSA San Antonio, Tex. - The Alamo Broadcasting Co. was first licensee of KTSA on May 9, 1922. Early records show the station assigned 1130 kc with 2 kw. In 1928, the station was licensed to Lone Star Broadcast Inc. It was assigned to Southwest Broadcasting Co. in 1932, and the station was operated on 550 kc with 5 kw, 1 kw at night. The license was assigned to KTSA Broadcasting Co. in 1939. Express Publishing Co. assumed control of the licensee in 1949, and transferred it to O. R. Mitchell Motors in 1954. McLendon Investment Corp. assumed control in 1956. The station is on 550 kc with 5 kw fulltime.

WOAI San Antonio, Tex. - Licensed to G. A. C. Halff on Sept. 25, 1922, WOAI has been retained by the same family interests with the same call letters ever since. First broadcasts were made with 500 watts. The Federal Radio Commission granted the station 5 kw in 1925. The outlet was granted 1200 kc and 50 kw in 1930.

WACO Waco, Tex. - Frank R. Jackson owned WACO on July 22, 1922, when the station was licensed as WJAD. The call letters WACO were adopted in 1927. The station is now owned by R. E. Lee Glasgow and Wendell W. Mayes Sr. It operates with 1 kw on 1460 kc.

KSL Salt Lake City, Utah - KSL went on the air April 21, 1922, under the call letters KZN. The station had 500 watts on 833 kc. The Deseret News owned the outlet. In 1924 the station was purchased by John Cope and his father, F. W. Cope. Radio Service Corp. of Utah, present licensee, was formed shortly thereafter. Call letters KPFT were assumed that year and the station was operating on 1149 kc. About the same time, the Latter Day Saints Church and the Salt Lake Tribune Publishing Co. became interested in the station. In 1925, the church agreed to lend the licensee money to erect a 1 kw station, thereby gaining approximately 51% of the stock. The Salt Lake Tribune acquired interest in exchange for news and promotion services. Call letters KSL were then adopted. The outlet began broadcasting with 50 kw in 1932, and moved to 1160 kc in 1941.

WCAX Burlington, Vt. - The U. of Vermont was licensed for the station on May 13, 1922. The outlet was on 1180 kc with 100 watts in 1927. The Burlington Daily News took over in 1931 on 1200 kc. The license was assigned to the Vermont Broadcasting Corp. in 1939 and later that year, the name was changed to Burlington Daily News Inc. The licensee became WCAX Broadcasting with 1 kw on 620 kc. It now uses 5 kw on that frequency.

KRKO Everett, Wash. - Otto and Bob Leese, broadcasting with 5 watts on 360 meters since 1920, received their license in August 1922. In 1924, they were transmitting with 15 watts on 1340 kc. Power was increased to 100 watts in 1925. Call letters KRKO were adopted in 1935. William R. Taft became principal owner in 1943. The licensee Everett Broadcasting Co. was broadcasting with 1 kw on 1380 kc in 1950, and received 5 kw in 1960.

KGY Olympia, Wash. - As a non-commercial station, operated by St. Martin's College in Lacey, Wash., KGY was licensed in April 1922. Archie Taft Sr. and Louis Wasmer bought the station in 1927 and the frequency was changed form 1200 to 1210 kc, sharing time with KTW Seattle. Tom Olsen, present owner, purchased part ownership in KGY in 1939. The station was granted 250 watts on 1240 kc in 1940. Power was given its latest increase to 1 kw in 1960.

*KWSC Pullman, Wash. - Licensed as KFAE to the Washington State U., the station began regular programming on Dec. 10, 1922. The original frequency was 834 kc with 500 watts. KFAE was descended from an experimental 5 watt radio telephone built in early 1922. The licensed power was 500 watts, but the station used only one-half that. Call letters KWSC were established in 1925. Throughout the years the station went through about a dozen changes in frequency. It finally settled on its present 1250 kc in 1941. It broadcasts with 5 kw.

KOL Seattle, Wash. - Station began as the 10 watt KDZE, owned by Rhodes Brothers Co., Seattle department store. About two years later, call letters were changed to KFOA and power increased to 1 kw on 1270 kc. In 1928 Archie Taft Sr., Seattle sporting goods store operator, purchased the station and switched call letters to KOL. In January 1961, license was assigned to Seattle Broadcasting Co. with Archie Taft Jr. as president and general manager. KOL has been on 1300 kc with 5 kw since 1941.

*KTW Seattle, Wash. - Station has been owned by the First Presbyterian Church of Seattle since its inception. The station began broadcasting in August 1920. In 1925, it was licensed to operate with 1 kw. The station remained with that power until 1960, when it was granted 5 kw. KTW operates on 1250 kc.

KHQ Spokane, Wash. - Louis Wasmer, licensee-owner-manager began operating KHQ from Seattle in 1922. The original station had 50 watts. Facilities were moved to Spokane in 1925, and the station began broadcasting with 1 kw. In 1946, the station was purchased by the Chronicle Co. It operates on 590 kc with 5 kw.

KLYK Spokane, Wash. - Started in 1922, KLYK Inc. (The Taft Family) took over the station in 1959. The station is on 1230 kc with 250 watts.

KXLY Spokane, Wash. - As a supplementary service of Radio Supply Co., KFDC went on the air on Oct. 16, 1922 with 5 watts. The purpose was to promote sales of radio parts. Ed Craney was the operator. In 1924, the station's call was changed to KFPY. It power went up to 100 watts two years later and its frequency was 1130 kc. In 1927, power was increased to 250 watts on 1220 kc, and in 1928 to 500 watts on 1390 kc. In 1930, the station went to 1 kw and in a few years to its present 5 kw. In 1947, the call letters were changed to KXLY. It now operates on 920 kc.

KMO Tacoma, Wash. - As a joint venture of the Tacoma Times and Love Electric Co., KMO first broadcast in April 1922. The station was taken over by the Tacoma Radio Supply Corp. during the next four years. In 1926, Carl E. Haymond bought the outlet. Mr. Haymond increased the power to 500 watts, then in 1954, sold the station to its present licensee, Tacoma Radio Corp. The station operates on 1360 kc.

*WLBL Auburndale, Wis. - With a 500 watt transmitter at Waupaca, WPAH began operation Feb. 5, 1922 on 485 meters. The station was established by the Wisconsin State Dept. of Markets, to broadcast agricultural information to farmers. In 1924, the outlet was moved to Stevens Point and call letters were changed to WLBL. In 1937, the station installed a 5 kw transmitter near Auburndale and began operating on 930 kc. Studios were moved to the Central State Teachers College campus that same year. In 1951 station operation was transferred to the Wisconsin State Radio Council, a statutory body charged with providing statewide educational broadcasting.

KFIZ Fon Du Lac, Wis. - Started in May 1922, station operated with 100 watts in its earlier days. Reporter Printing Co. was licensee in the mid-thirties. Present licensee, KFIZ Broadcasting Co., acquired station in May 1946 and operates it with 250 watts on 1450 kc.

*WHA Madison, Wis. - Under the supervision of the late Professor Earle M. Terry, the U. of Wisconsin started 9XM in 1917. The station was operating on 485 meters with 500 watts in 1921. WHA supplanted 9XM on Jan. 13, 1922, and subsequent frequency and power changes have brought the station to the present 5 kw on 970 kc. The outlet has operated from the same location under the same licensee since its inception.

WISN Milwaukee, Wis. - With call letters WIAO, the station began operating with 100 watts on 360 meters. WSOE was adopted in 1924, to identify the licensee, Milwaukee School of Engineering. In 1924 the Wisconsin News, Hearst Corp. newspaper in Milwaukee, began part time programming for the station, and a year later took over all programming duties. The outlet increased its power to 500 watts on 1110 kc in 1927. It was acquired by the Wisconsin News in 1928, and call letters were changed to WISN. The licensee has changed its name to the Milwaukee Sentinel, but letters WISN remain. Under early Federal Radio Commission, power was increased to 250 watts and time was shared with WHAD, the Marquette U. station. In 1930 the station increased power to 1 kw and continued to share time with WHAD until 1934, when it purchased the WHAD plant and facilities. The outlet was placed on its present 1150 kc with 5 kw in 1941.

The preceding compilation has been made from records of the FCC, FRC, Bureau of Navigation, station reports and files of past issues of BROADCASTING. Since much pioneering in broadcasting occurred before official and complete records were instituted, this listing may be incomplete in certain respects.

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