*Last revision: March 8, 2014*

**ABBE-HELMERT CRITERION** for randomness is named for
Ernst Abbe and
F. R. Helmert.
The criterion is based on the first-order serial correlation coefficient and,
according to H. O. A. Wold & L. Juréen *Demand
Analysis: A Study in Econometrics* p. 332 , “was first proposed by
Abbe (1863) and a large-sample theory was developed by Helmert (1905).” The
articles referred to are Abbe (1863), “Über die Gesetzmässigkeit in der
Verteilung der Fehler bei Beobachtungsreihen” in *Gesammelte Abhandlungen*, **2**,
55 – 81. and Helmert (1905) “Über die Genauigkeit der Kriterion des Zufalls bei
Beobachtungsreihen,” *Sitzungsberichte der
Kgl. Preussischen Akad. Dder Wissenschaften* 1905, 594-512. Abbe’s
work is particularly remarkable, coming so many years before the era of modern
time series analysis. Compare the entries SERIAL CORRELATION and CORRELOGRAM.

**ABELIAN EQUATION** is named for a kind of equation treated by
Niels Henrik Abel
(1802-1829) in his "Mémoire sur une classe particulière
d'équations résoluble algébriquement" (1829)
*Oeuvres Complètes, 1*, 478-514.
Leopold Kronecker
(1823-1891) introduced the term

**ABELIAN FUNCTION.** C. G. J. Jacobi (1804-1851) proposed the term *Abelsche
Transcendenten* (Abelian transcendental functions) in *Crelle's Journal* 8 (1832)
*Werke
III*, p. 481. (DSB).

*Abelian function* appears in the title "Zur Theorie der Abelschen
Functionen" by Karl Weierstrass (1815-1897) in Crelle's *Journal,* 47 (1854) reprinted in
*Werke
I*, p. 132.

Weierstrass' first publications on Abelian functions appeared in the
Braunsberg school prospectus (1848-1849) reprinted in
*Werke
I,* p. 111.

**ABELIAN GROUP.** Camille Jordan (1838-1922) wrote *groupe abélien* in 1870 in
*Traité
des Substitutions et des Equations Algébraiques.* However, Jordan does
not mean a commutative group as we do now, but instead means the symplectic
group over a finite field (that is to say, the group of those linear transformations
of a vector space that preserve a non-singular alternating bilinear form). In
fact, Jordan uses both the terms "groupe abélien" and "équation
abélienne." The former means the symplectic group; the latter is a natural
modification of Kronecker's terminology and means an equation of which (in modern
terms) the Galois group is commutative.

An early use of “Abelian” to refer to commutative groups is H. Weber,
“Beweis des Satzes, dass jede eigentlich primitive quadratische Form
unendlich viele Primzahlen darzustellen fähig ist,”
*Mathematische
Annalen, 20 (1882)*, 301--329. The term is used in the first
paragraph of the paper without definition; it is given an explicit definition
in the middle of p. 304. The term appears in English in W. Burnside *Theory of Groups of Finite Order* (1897).
Burnside (p. 380) reports the corresponding French term as “groupe des
opérations échangeables.” [Peter M. Neumann and Julia Tompson]

The term **ABELIAN INTEGRAL** is found in a letter of Sept. 8, 1844, from William Henry Fox Talbot:
"What is the definition of an Abelian Integral? for it appears to me that
most integrals possess the Abelian property."
The letter was addressed to John Frederick William Herschel, who, in his reply of Sept. 13, 1844, wrote:
"I suppose the most general definition of an Abelian Integral might be
taken to be this that between +(*x*) and +(φ(*x*)) there shall subsist an
algebraical relation between several such functions."
[The Talbot letters are available at
http://foxtalbot.dmu.ac.uk/.]

The term **ABELIAN THEOREM** was introduced by C. G. J. Jacobi
(1804-1851). He proposed the term in *Crelle's Journal* 8
(1832), writing that it would be "very appropriate" (DSB).

**ABSCISSA.** According to Cajori (1906, page 185), "The
term *abscissa* occurs for the first time in a
Latin work of 1659, written by Stefano degli Angeli (1623-1697),
a professor of mathematics in Rome." A footnote attributes this
information to Moritz Cantor.

According to Cajori (1919, page 175), "The words 'abscissa' and 'ordinate' were not used by Descartes. ... The technical use of 'abscissa' is observed in the eighteenth century by C. Wolf and others. In the more general sense of a 'distance' it was used earlier by B. Cavalieri in his Indivisibles, by Stefano degli Angeli (1623-1697), a professor of mathematics in Rome, and by others."

*Abscissa* was used in Latin by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)
in "De linea ex lineis numero infinitis
ordinatim ductis inter se concurrentibus formata....," *Acta
Eruditorum 11* 1692, 168-171 (Leibniz, *Mathematische
Schriften,* Abth. 2, Band I (1858), 266-269).

According to Struik (page 272), "This term, which was not new in Leibniz's day, was made by him into a standard term, as were so many other technical terms."

For the word in English
the *OED* cites a passage from 1706: H. Ditton *An Institution of Fluxions* p. 31 “'Tis required to find the
relation of the Fluxion of the Ordinate to the Fluxion of the Abscisse.”

See the entry ORDINATE.

**ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY. ** The concept was introduced in 1884 by E. Harnack
“Die allgemeinen Sätze über den Zusammenhang der Functionen
einer reellen Variabelen mit ihren Ableitungen. II. Theil.”
*Math.
Ann.* **21**, (1884), 217-252. The term was introduced in 1905 by G. Vitali.
In the meantime several mathematicians had used the concept. See T. Hawkins *Lebesgue’s
Theory of Integration*.

**ABSOLUTE CONVERGENCE** was defined by Cauchy (DSB).

*Absolute convergence* and *unconditional convergence*
appear in 1893 in *A Treatise on the Theory of Functions* by
James Harkness and Frank Morley: "A series is said to converge
*absolutely* when it still converges after all negative signs
have been changed to positive. ... A convergent series which is
subject to the commutative law is said to be *unconditionally*
convergent; otherwise it is said to be *conditionally
convergent.* ... Absolute convergence implies unconditional
convergence."

**ABSOLUTE DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS** or *il calcolo differenziale assoluto* was the name given by the Italian geometer
Gregorio
Ricci-Curbastro to a form of differential calulus he developed that is
independent of the coordinate system. The subject is now usually called TENSOR ANALYSIS.

**ABSOLUTE VALUE.** In his *Disquisitiones arithmeticae* (1801), Gauss used
*magnitudo absoluta* (article 361, page 454).

An 1807 French translation of Euler’s *Elements of Algebra* uses *valeur absolue.* An English translation of the French is:
“We have supposed that the numbers *p* and *q*
must both be positive; of course if one makes them both negative, it
does not make any change in the absolute value of the proposed formula;
it does not make any change of sign in the case where the exponent is
odd; and it is absolutely the same in the case where the exponent is
even; thus it is not important which signs on gives to the numbers *p* and *q,* as long as we suppose both are of the same sign.”

*Absolute value* is found in English in 1830 in *The elements of analytical
geometry; comprehending the doctrine of the conic sections, and the general
theory of curves and surfaces of the second order* by John Radford Young
(1799-1885): “we have *AF* the positive value of *x* equal to
*BA - BF*, and for the negative value, *BF* must exceed *BA*,
that is, *F* must be on the other side of *A*, as at *F'*, hence
making *AF'* equal to the absolute value of the negative root of the equation.”
[Google print search by James A. Landau]

Searches at Google print give *absolute Werth* in 1831 and 1844, *absolute Grösse* in 1836, 1841, and 1853,
and *absolute länge* in 1853.

*Absolute Betrag* is found in 1851 in *Die Reihenentwickelungen der Differenzial- und Integralrechnung* by
Dr. Oskar Schlömilch. This is a use in the modern sense.

Cayley used the term *absolute magnitude* in 1856, *Coll. Works.* Vol II page 359:
“...it follows that *x* will be in absolute magnitude greater or less than 1, i.e., the points in question
will be imaginary or real, according as *a* > 1 or *a* < 1.”

The *Century Dictionary* (1889-1897) has *absolute magnitude,* rather
than *absolute value.*

James A. Landau, Wilfried Neumaier, and Julio González Cabillón contributed to this entry. See also MODULUS and the entry on the Earliest Uses of Function Symbols.

**ABSTRACT ALGEBRA** is found in H. S. Vandiver, "Theory of Finite Algebras," *Transactions of the American
Mathematical Society,* Jul., 1912.

**ABUNDANT NUMBER.** Theon of Smyrna (about A. D. 130)
distinguished between perfect, abundant, and deficient numbers.

A translation of Chapter XIV of Book I of Nicomachus has:

Now the superabundant number is one which has, over and above the factors which belong to it and fall to its share, others in addition, just as if an animal should be created with too many parts or limbs, with 10 tongues as the poet says, and 10 mouths, or with 9 lips, or 3 rows of teeth, or 100 hands, or too many fingers on one hand. Similarly, if when all the factors in a number are examined and added together in one sum, it proves upon investigation that the number's own factors exceed the number itself, this is called a superabundant number, for it oversteps the symmetry which exists between the perfect and its own parts. Such are 12, 24, and certain others, . . .This citation was provided by Sam Kutler.

*Abundaunt number* is found in English in 1557 in *Whetstone
of Witte* by Robert Recorde: "Imperfecte nombers be suche, whose
partes added together, doe make either more or lesse, then the whole
nomber it self... And if the partes make more then the whole nomber,
then is that nomber called superfluouse, or abundaunt" (OED2).

**ACUTE ANGLE.** See the entry **RIGHT, OBTUSE and ACUTE ANGLES**.

**ACUTE TRIANGLE.** *Oxygon* appears in its Latin form in
1570 in Sir Henry Billingsley's translation of Euclid: "An oxigonium
or an acuteangled triangle, is a triangle which hath all his three
angles acute" (OED2).

*Acutangle triangle* appears in 1685 in R. Williams,
*Euclid*: "Oxygone, or Acutangle triangle is that whose angles
are all acute" (OED2).

*Oxygon* is found in 1838 in Sir William Rowan Hamilton,
*Logic,*: "Oxygon, i.e. triangle which has its three angles
acute" (OED2).

*Acutangular* appears in *Chambers Cyclopaedia* in 1727-41:
"If all the angles be acute..the triangle is said to be acutangular,
or oxygonous" (OED2).

**ADDEND.** Johann Scheubel (1494-1570) in an arithmetic
published in 1545 wrote *numeri addendi* (numbers to be
added).

Orontius Fineus (1530) used *addendi* alone (1555 ed., fol. 3),
according to Smith (vol. 2, page 89).

*Addend* was used in English by Samuel Jeake (1623-1690), in
*Logisicelogia, or arithmetic surveighed and reviewed,* written
in 1674 but first published in 1696:
"Place the Addends in rank and file one directly under another" (OED2).

**ADDITION.** Fibonacci used the Latin *additio,*
although he also used *compositio* and *collectio*
for this operation (Smith vol. 2, page 89).

The word is found in English in about 1300 in the following passage:

Here tells (th)at (th)er ben .7. spices or partes of (th)is craft. The first is called addicion, (th)e secunde is called subtraccion. The thyrd is called duplacion. The 4. is called dimydicion. The 5. is called multiplicacion. The 6. is called diuision. The 7. is called extraccion of (th)e rote.In the above, (th) is a thorn. The citation is from "The crafte of nombrynge" (ca. 1300), one of the earliest manuscripts [Egerton ms. 2622] in the English language that refers to mathematics. The transcription was carried out by Robert Steele (1860-1944), and it was first privately printed in 1894 by the

**ADDITIVE IDENTITY** is found in 1953 in *First Course in
Abstract Algebra* by Richard E. Johnson [James A. Landau].

**ADDITIVE INVERSE** is found in the 1953 edition of *A Survey
of Modern Algebra* by Garrett Birkhoff and Saunders MacLane. It
may be in the first edition of 1941 [John Harper]. It is also found
in 1953 in *First Course in Abstract Algebra* by Richard E.
Johnson [James A. Landau].

**ADDITIVITY** (in ANOVA) is found
in 1947 in C. Eisenhart, "The Assumptions Underlying the Analysis of Variance,"
*Biometrics,* 3, 1-21 (David, 1995).

See VARIANCE.

**ADEQUALITY.** The Latin word *adaequalitas* was used by Pierre de Fermat.

André Weil writes in *Number Theory, An approach through history from Hammurapi to Legendre*:
“[Fermat] introduces the technical term adaequalitas,
adaequare, etc., which he says he has borrowed from Diophantus. As
Diophantus V.11 shows, it means an approximate equality, and this is
indeed how Fermat explains the word in one of his later writings.”

According Mikhail Katz, Diophantus coined the term *parisotes* to refer to
an approximate equality. The term was rendered as *adaequalitas* in
Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac’s Latin translation of Diophantus, and
adéquation and adégaler in Paul Tannery's French translation of Fermat’s
Latin treatises on maxima and minima and related problems.
[Information from the Wikipedia article Adequality.]

**ADJOINT EQUATION.** Lagrange used the term *équation
adjointe.*

In 1889, T. Craig wrote in *Treat. Linear Differential Equations*:

When Chapter I was written..I had not seen Forsyth's memoir, and had not been able to find an adopted English term for Lagrange'sThis citation was taken from the OED2.équation adjointé,so I used the wordadjunct,suggested by the Germanadjungirte,and not unlike the Frenchadjointe.It seems better now, however, to employ the wordassociate,or, when speaking simply of Lagrange'séquation adjointé,the wordadjoint.

**ADJOINT LINEAR FORM** appears in 1856 in Arthur Cayley,
"A Third Memoir Upon Quantics," *Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
of London* Vol. 146. (1856), pp. 627-647 reprinted in
*Papers
II* p. 310 [University of Michigan Historical Math Collection].

**ADJOINT MATRIX.** The *OED* quotes from M. Bôcher's *Introduction to Higher Algebra* of 1907:
"By the adjoint *A* of a matrix *a* is understood another matrix of the same order in which
the element in the *i*th row and *j*th column is the cofactor of the element in the *j*th row and
*i*th column of *a.*" (p. 77)

**ADMISSIBLE ESTIMATE** and *admissible system
of (acceptance) regions* appear in Wald's 1939 "Contributions to the Theory
of Statistical Estimation and Testing Hypotheses," *Annals of Mathematical
Statistics,* **10**, 299-326 [John Aldrich, based on David (2001)].

See DECISION THEORY.

**AFFINE.** *Affinis* and *affinitas* were first used by Leonhard
Euler in *Introductio in analysin infinitorum* (1748) Chapter XVIII: "De
similitudine et affinitate linearum curvarum." He also wrote (II. xviii.
239): "Quia Curvae hoc modo ortae inter se quandam Affinitatem tenent,
has Curvas affines vocabimus."

The words continued to be used a little throughout the 19th century, for example in Möbius "Der barycentrische Calcul" (1827) Chapter 3: "Von der Affinitaet." There is a brief historical summary of this stage by E. Papperitz in the Encyclopaedie der mathematische Wissenschaften III A B 6 (1909), p.517. [Ken Pledger]

**ALGEBRA** comes from a phrase in the title of a work written in Arabic around 825 by
al-Khowarizmi,
*al-jabr w'al-muqâbalah.*
Wikipedia.
Katz explains the use of the terms: *al-jabr* refers to the operation of transposing a subtracted quantity on one side of an
equation to the other side where it becomes an added quantity; *al-muqâbalah* refers to the reduction of a
positive term by subtracting equal amounts from both sides of the equation.

The word *al-jabr* means “the reunion
of broken parts” and when the Moors took the word *al-jabr* into Spain, an *algebrista* being a restorer,
one who resets broken bones. Thus in *Don Quixote* (II, chap. 15), mention is
made of “*un algebrista* who
attended to the luckless Samson.” At one time it was not unusual to see
over the entrance to a barber shop the words “Algebrista y Sangrador”
(bonesetter and bloodletter) (Smith vol. 2, pages 389-90). The word in this
sense also had some currency in English. Thus the *OED* has a quotation from a book on surgery from 1541:
“The helpes of Algebra & of dislocations.”

Returning to mathematics, when the work of al-Khowarizmi was translated into Latin—around
1140 by Robert of Chester—the words in the title were not translated, instead
the Arabic words were borrowed. Thus the title became *Liber algebrae et almucabala*. Viète disliked
the word *algebra* because it had no meaning in any European language and promoted instead the term *analytic art*:
see the entry ANALYSIS. The original Arabic/Latin phrase is echoed in English in John Dee’s
Preface to Billingsley’s translation (1570) of Euclid’s *Elements*:
“The Science of workyng Algiebar and Almachabel, that is, the Science of findyng an
vnknowen number, by Addyng of a Number, and Diuision and æquation.” In the text
Billingsley drops the second half of the original phrase and uses the first
half in a more general way: “That more secret and subtill part of Arithmetike,
commonly called Algebra.” Robert Recorde had done the
same a few years before in *The Pathwaie to Knowledge* in 1551: “Also the rule of false position, with dyvers examples not
onely vulgar, but some appertayning to the rule of Algeber.” These quotations are from the *OED*.

It was once believed that the word *algebra* was derived from the name Gabir ben Allah of Sevilla, commonly called Geber, a
celebrated astronomer apparently skilled in algebra. Joseph Raphson's *Mathematical Dictionary* (1702) has:
“*Algebra,* from *Al* in Arabick which signifies Excellent, and *Geber* the Name of the supposed Inventor of
it....” This etymology based on EPONYMY is
not totally absurd: compare the word ALGORITHM.

The *algebra* of al-Khowarizmi was the
name for an operation used in solving an equation but by 1600 the word was
applied to the study in which that operation was used. The word continued to be
applied to a study, but one whose scope increased enormously especially in the
19^{th} and 20^{th} centuries. See the Historical Survey in the
Encyclopaedia of Mathematics and the entries
GROUP, FIELD, MATRIX, RING, VECTOR SPACE and other algebra topics.

In the 19^{th} and 20^{th} centuries the word **algebra** acquired further meanings. It is
sometimes used to mean a formal calculus as in the title of Schröder’s book of
1890 *Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik*.
An early expression of this point of view is found in Augustus de Morgan’s
*Trigonometry
and Double Algebra* (1849, p. 101):
“It is most important that the student should bear in mind that, *with one exception,* no word nor sign of
arithmetic or algebra has one atom of meaning throughout this chapter, the
object of which is *symbols, and their laws of combination,* giving a *symbolic
algebra* (page 92) which may hereafter become the grammar of a
hundred distinct *significant algebras*.”
The term is also used in some very specific constructions, e.g. **Boolean algebra** and **algebra of sets** (in measure theory).
A *JSTOR* search found *Boolean algebra* in
the title of a 1913 article by Sheffer while the expression *algebra of sets* (an abbreviation for *Boolean algebra of sets*) was popularised
by Halmos’s *Measure Theory* (1950). See the *Encyclopaedia of Mathematics* entries
Boolean algebra and
Algebra of sets.

**ALGEBRAIC CURVE.** See TRANSCENDENTAL CURVE.

**ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION** is found in English in 1794
in *An Essay on the Principles of Human Knowledge* by E. Waring, M. D.:
"8. Infinite series: e. g. let a quantity denoting the ordinate, be an algebraic function
of the abscissa x, by the common methods of division and extraction of roots, reduce it
into an infinite series ascending or descending according to the dimensions of x, and then
find the integral of each of the resdulting terms." [Google print search]

**ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY.** *Algebraical geometry* appears in 1823 in the title
*An elementary Treatise on algebraical Geometry* by Rev. Dionysius Lardner.

**ALGEBRAIC LOGIC.** The following is from "From Paraconsistent Logic to
Universal Logic" by Jean-Yves Béziau:

The road leading from the algebra of logic to algebraic logic is an interesting object of study for the historian of modern logic which has yet to be fully examined. Curry stands in the middle of the road, he was the first to use the expression "algebraic logic" in (Curry 1952) and not Halmos as erroneously stated in (Blok/Pigozzi 1991, p. 365), but what he meant by it was still close to algebra of logic. Halmos introduced this expression rather to denote the algebraic treatement of first-order logic, but nowadays the expression "algebraic logic" is used to include both the zero and the first-order levels.

*Algebraic quantity* appears in 1673 in *Elements of Algebra*
(1725) by John Kersey: "Two or more Algebraic quantities" (OED2).

*Algebraic* (in the sense of an algebraic number) is found in
1840 in *Mathematical Dissertations* (1841) by J. R. Young
[James A. Landau].

*Algebraic number* appears in 1870 in the title "Kritische Untersuchungen
über die Theorie der algebraischen Zahlen" by H. Schwarz.

**ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY** appears in 1942 in the title *Algebraic Topology*
by Solomon Lefschetz. A *JSTOR* search found a slightly earlier appearance in Norman E. Steenrod “Universal
Homology Groups,” *American Journal of Mathematics*, **58**, (1936), 661-701.

**ALGORITHM** is derived via Latin from the Arabic *al-Khowarazmi*, the native of Khwarazm
(Khiva), surname of the Arab mathematician and astronomer
Abu
Ja'far Mohammed Ben Musa (c. 780 - c.850).

The *OED* has separate entries for *algorithm* and the earlier *algorism.* It
says that *algorithm* is derived from
the earlier word *algorism* and "influenced by the Greek word *arithmos*
(number)." However, other dictionaries show *algorism* as a Middle English spelling of *algorithm.*

The term originally meant "arithmetic" or "the Hindu-Arabic numerals."

In the twelfth century, the arithmetic of al-Khowarazmi
was translated into Latin by Robert of Chester and it bore the name *Algoritmi
de numero indorum* meaning *al-Khowarazmi* *on the Hindu numbers*.

In Middle English *augrim, algorisme,* and other spellings are found. Chaucer used *augrym.*
Recorde used *augrim* and *algorisme.*

In 1503 in *Margarita philosophica* Gregor Reisch used the headings *Algorithmus de minutijs vulgaribus,
Algorithmus de minutijs physicalibus,* and
*Algorithmus cum denarijs piectilibus: seu calcularis.*
Under these headings are rules for handling fractions, astronomical fractions,
and rules for computing on the reckoning board.

*Algorithmus* appears in 1534 in *Algorithmus demonstratus* by Johann Schoner.

*Algorithmus* (in the sense of a systematic technique for solving a problem) was
used by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in 1684:

Ex cognito hoc velutAlgorithmo,ut ita dicam, calculi hujus, quem vocodifferentialem,omnes aliae aequationes differentiales inveniri possunt per calculum communem, maximae que & minimae, item que tangentes haberi, ita ut opus non sit tolli fractas aut irrationales, aut alia vincula, quod tamen faciendum fuit secundum Methodos hactenus editas. (From this rule, known as an algorithm, so to speak, of this calculus, which I call differential, all other differential equations may be found by means of a general calculus, and maxima and minima, as well as tangents [may be] obtained, so that there may be no need of removing fractions, nor irrationals, nor other aggregates, which nevertheless formerly had to be done in accordance with the methods published up to the present.)

The citation above is from "Nova Methodvs pro maximis et minimis,
itemque tangentibus, quae nec fractas, nec irrationales quantitates
moratur, & singulare pro illis calculi genus, per G.G.L." (A new
method for maxima and minima, as well as tangents, which is not
obstructed by fractional or irrational quantities), Leibniz' first
published account of the calculus [*Acta Eruditorum,* vol. 3,
pp. 467-473, October 1684], page 469. Both terms "Algorithmo" and
"differentialem" are italicized in the original. The English
translation is from Evelyn Walker's translation of extracts from
Leibniz' memoir found on p. 623 of Smith's *Source Book in
Mathematics* (1929), vol. 2.

*Algorithm* is found in English in 1699 in
*Phil. Trans.* XXI. 263: "The Algorithm or Numeral Figures now in use" (OED2).

*Algorithm* is found in English in 1715 in *The Theory of Fluxions*
by Joseph Raphson: "Now from this being known as the
Algorithm, as I may say of this Calculus, which I call differential,
..." (p.23).

*Algorithm* was used by Euler, for instance in
his article "De usu novi algorithmi in problemate Pelliano solvendo,"
and its use was then firmly established.

According to the Theseus Logic, Inc., website, "The term algorithm was not, apparently, a commonly used mathematical term in America or Europe before Markov, a Russian, introduced it. None of the other investigators, Herbrand and Godel, Post, Turing or Church used the term. The term however caught on very quickly in the computing community."

[Julio González Cabillón, Heinz Lueneburg, David Fowler, and John Aldrich contributed to this entry.]

**ALIAS** as a term in the theory of experimental design appears in D. J. Finney's
"The Fractional Replication of Factorial Arrangements," *Annals
of Eugenics*, **12**, (1945), 291-301. (David (2001))

**ALIQUOT PART.** *Aliqi* is an adjective in Latin meaning
"some" or "any."

St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) wrote in *De Civitate Dei*:
"Itemque in denario quaternarius est aliqua pars eius..."

*Aliquot part* occurs in English in 1570 in Sir Henry
Billingsley's translation of Euclid's *Elements*: "This..is
called .. a measuring part .. and of the barbarous it is called ..
an aliquote part" (OED2).

The term **ALLOTRIOUS FACTOR** was coined by James Joseph
Sylvester.

The term **ALMOST PRIME OF ORDER r** was "apparently
introduced" by B. V. Levin in "A one-dimensional sieve," (Russian)

The term **ALPHAMETIC** was coined in 1955 by J. A. H. Hunter
(Schwartzman). In the Dec. 23, 1955, Toronto *Globe & Mail*
Hunter wrote, "These alphametics seem set to take the place of
crosswords as a new craze... Don't forget that each letter stands for
a particular figure" (OED2).

**ALTERNATE ANGLE.** Henry Billingsley’s
1570 translation of Euclid’s *Elements* has:
“If a right line falling vpon two right lines,
do make the alternate angles equall the one to the other:
those two right lines are parallels the one to the other.” [Alan Hughes]

In 1828, *Elements of Geometry and Trigonometry* (1832) by
David Brewster (a translation of Legendre) has:

AGO, GOC, we have already namedinterior angles on the same side; BGO, GOD, have the same name; AGO, GOD, are calledalternate interiorangles, or simplyalternate; so also, are BGO, GOC: and lastly EGB, GOD, or EGA, GOC, are called, respectively, the oppositeexterior and interiorangles; and EGB, COF, or AGE, DOF, thealternate exteriorangles.

In May 1940, a review in *The Mathematics Teacher* has: “While
the writer is correct in saying that the abbreviated description is
in general use for ‘the exterior angles on the same side of the
transversal,’ he is wrong about the ‘interior angles on the same side
of the transversal.’ At least two textbooks use the satisfactory
description ‘consecutive interior angles’ as a substitute for the
latter clumsy expression. The reference to the exterior angles on the
same side of the transversal is so infrequent as not to warrant a
need for an abbreviated description.”

**ALTERNATING GROUP** appears in Camille Jordan, "Sur la limite de
transitivité des groupes non alternés," *Bull. Soc.
math. de France* 1 (1873).

**ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS.** See HYPOTHESIS and HYPOTHESIS TESTING.

**AMBIGUOUS CASE.** In 1761 *Navigation New Modelled*
by Henry Wilson has "...where the Case is so ambiguous by Sol. 8..."
[Google print search]

*Ambiguous case* is found in 1827
in *Mathematical and astronomical tables* by William Galbraith:
"If in this triangle the side B be greater than C, there may be two triangles
formed, constituting what is called the ambiguous case, that is, it admits
of two solutions, either of which answers the conditions required, unless
from some known circumstances one of htem must be adopted in preference to the other."
[Google print search]

**AMENABLE** semigroups.
In his “Amenable semigroups,” *Illinois Journal of Mathematics*, **1**, 509-544 M. M. Day gives the definition,
“A semigroup *Σ* is called
amenable if there is a mean *μ* on *m*(*Σ*) which is both left and right invariant.” A good pun
needs no explanation and so Day does not point out that the term fuses
“amenable” in its usual meaning with the barbarism “meanable.” Day’s term was
an improvement on “messbar” (measurable) used in J. von Neumann (1929) Zur
allgemeinen Theorie des Maßes, *Fundamenta
Mathematicae*, **13**,
73-116. Day reflected on the success of the paper and its
title in This
week’s citation classic June 27 1983.

In a 2010 email, Peter Flor writes:

The English word amenable was intended by M. Day, who introduced the term, to remind the audience of the word "mean" since the concept of amenability is defined by the existence of a certain mean. Now, "mean" (in the mathematical sense) is "Mittel" in German, and "moyenne" in French. Accordingly, amenable (semi-)groups were called "mittelbar" in German and "moyennable" in French, since about 1950. J.-P. Pier, author of the bookAmenable Locally Compact Groups,called them "groupes moyennables" in his earlier publications in French. The German word "mittelbar" might be called a barbarism, just like your characterization of the non-existing word "meanable" which may have induced Day to coin the term "amenable". However, "mittelbar" is certainly more suitable than von Neumann’s "messbar" which usually means measurable.

See also *Wikipedia* amenable group.

**AMICABLE NUMBERS.** The philosopher Iamblichus of Chalcis (c. 250-330)
wrote that the Pythagoreans called certain numbers amicable numbers. An Internet
web page claims Pythagoras coined the term.

Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) used a term which is translated "amicable (or sympathetic) numbers."

In his 1796 mathematical dictionary, Hutton says he believes the term *amicable
number* was coined by Frans van Schooten (1615-1660).

The term appears in the title *De numeris amicabilibus* by Euler (1747)
in Opera
mathematica. Series prima. Volumen II p. 59.

Sometimes the terms *amiable* or *agreeable* are used.

**AMPLITUDE** (of an elliptic integral, meaning the angle subtended by
the elliptical arc) appears in French (same spelling as in English) in 1786 in Legendre’s
paper *Second Mémoire sur les Intégrations par arcs d’ellipses*, which was
published in the *Histoire de l’Académie royale des sciences, Année
MDCCLXXXVI avec les mémoires de Mathématique & de Physique.* [James A. Landau]

The term **ANALLAGMATIC** was used by James Joseph Sylvester
(1814-1897) (Schwartzman).

The OED2 has an 1869 citation, Clifford, *Brit. Assoc. Rep.* 8:
"On the Umbilici of Anallagmatic Surfaces."

**ANALYSIS** is a term with a long history in Mathematics and its meaning has changed several times. The
word comes via Medieval Latin from the Greek, derived from the verb
to unloose, undo. T. Heath writes in *A History of Greek Mathematics, volume 1* (1921, p. 291), “analysis [was] according to the ancient view nothing more
than a series of successive reductions of a theorem or a problem till it is
finally reduced to a theorem or problem already known.” Kline (page 279)
states that the term was introduced by
Theon of Alexandria.

François Viète
used the term *analytic art* for algebra in 1591 in *In artem analyticem
isagoge.* Schwartzman (page 23) says that “the French
mathematician Viète opted for the term *analysis* rather than *algebra,* claiming
that *algebra* doesn’t mean
anything in any European language. He didn't succeed in driving out the word *algebra,* but he did popularize *analysis* to the point where it has stayed
with us.” See the entry ALGEBRA.

The earliest quotations in the OED illustrate this
sense of *analysis* as *algebra*: "Simple Analysis is that
employed in solving problems reducible to simple equations" (*Chambers's Cyclopedia
Supplement* of 1753); "*Analysis* or the *Analytic Method* .. is
that which is commonly used in Algebra" (Charles Hutton *A Course of Mathematics* of 1827).

In *The Purloined Letter*
(1845), Edgar Allan Poe wrote:

The mathematicians, I grant you, have done their best to promulgate the popular error to which you allude, and which is none the less an error for its promulgation as truth. With an art worthy a better cause, for example, they have insinuated the term 'analysis' into application to algebra. The French are the originators of this particular deception; but if a term is of any importance -- if words derive any value from applicability -- then 'analysis' conveys 'algebra' about as much as, in Latin, 'ambitus' implies 'ambition', 'religio' 'religion', or 'homines honesti', a set ofhonorablemen."

Poe was out of date for the French were again redefining *analysis*.
Perhaps Lagrange had set the scene for analysis to invade calculus with his
project to found calculus on algebra; see his lectures
Théorie des
fonctions analytiques contenant les principes du calcul différentiel dégagés
de toute considération d'infiniment petits et d'évanouissans, de limites ou
de fluxions et réduits à l'analyse algébrique des quantités finies
(1797). Beginning with Cauchy's *Cours d'analyse de l'École Royale Polytechnique* of 1821
(Oeuvres II.3),
*Cours d'analyse* was the title French authors chose for their advanced works on calculus.

*Analysis* with its modern meaning in English is found in
1802 in a review of J. E. Montucla, “A History
of Mathematics,” in *The Critical Review; or, Annals of Literature; Extended & Improved*:
“Several new branches of analysis having arisen out of the foregoing, the author treats of them to such extent
as the nature of his work will permit; such as the calculus of finite differences; that of circular, logarithmic,
and imaginary quantities; the methods of limits, of analytic functions, of variations, of partial differentials,
of infinite series, of eliminations, of interpolations, of continued fractions, &c.” [Google print search,
James A. Landau]

In the later 20^{th} century the scope of analysis increased as newcomers such as
FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS were accommodated. Numerous sub-fields are now
distinguished--REAL ANALYSIS, COMPLEX
ANALYSIS, classical analysis, modern analysis etc.

For a list of entries associated with analysis see here.

[John Aldrich contributed to this entry.]

The term **ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS** was coined by Donald E. Knuth.
The term appears in the preface to his *The Art of Computer
Programming,* Volume 1 [Tim Nikkel].

**ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE.** See VARIANCE.

**ANALYSIS SITUS.** See TOPOLOGY.

**ANALYTIC ARITHMETIC.** At the end of the sixteenth century, a few
authors, following Viete's interest in analysis, attached the word
"analytic" to some terms related to math. For instance, Nicholas
Reimers Ursus (1551-1600) used the expression *arithmetica
analytica* in *Nicol. Raimari arithmetica analytica vulgo Cosa,
oder Algebra,* published posthumously in 1601. [Julio
González Cabillón]

The term **ANALYTIC EQUATION** was used by Robveral in *De
geometrica planarum & cubicarum aequationum,* printed posthumously
in 1693: "Dicitur locus aliquis geometricus ad aequationem
analyticam revocari, cum ex una aliqua, vel ex pluribus ex illlius
proprietatibus specificis, quaedam deducitur aequatio analytica, in
qua una vel duae vel tres ad summum sint magnitudines incognitae."
[Barnabas Hughes]

In modern analysis the term **ANALYTIC FUNCTION** is used
in two ways: (of a complex function) having a complex derivative at every point
of its domain, and in consequence possessing derivatives of all orders and
agreeing with its Taylor series locally; (of a real function) possessing derivatives of all orders and agreeing with its
Taylor series locally. (Borowski & Borwein)

According to Youschkevitch (pages 37-84), the term was first used by
Marquis
de Condorcet (1743-1794) in his unpublished *Traité du Calcul Integral* and then more conspicuously by
Joseph
Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) in his
*Théorie
des Fonctions Analytiques* (1797). For these authors an analytic
function simply signified a function of the kind treated in analysis. [Giovanni Ferraro].

The connection between the usage of Lagrange and modern usage is explained by Judith V. Grabiner in her
*The Origins of Cauchy’s Rigorous Calculus*: "For Lagrange, all the applications
of calculus ... rested on those properties of functions which could be
learned by studying their Taylor series developments ... Once the question
of convergence has been dealt with, in fact a great deal of information can be
obtained about functions by studying their Taylor-series expansions.
Weierstrass
later exploited this idea in his theory of functions of a complex variable,
retaining Lagrange’s term "analytic function" to designate, for Weierstrass, a
function of a complex variable with a convergent Taylor series." (pp. 52 & 194)
See the Encyclopedia article Analytic function. [John Aldrich]

**ANALYTIC GEOMETRY.** The following appears as a footnote in *Descartes’s Mathematical
Thought* by Chikara Sasaki:

According to Boyer, the terminology “analytic geometry” was used probably for the first time by Michel Rolle in his “De l'evanouissement des quantitez inconnues dans la geometrie analytique,”Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences(Paris), Année 1709 (1709. 9. Aoust), pp. 419-450. See Carl B. Boyer,History of Analytic Geometry(New York, 1956), p. 155: “Incidentally, in Rolle’s discussion of this problem, the term ‘analytic geometry’ appeared in print, perhaps for the first time, in a sense analogous that of today.” On p. 141 of the same book Boyer also refers to Newton’s treatise titled “Artis Analyticae Specimina vel Geometria Analytica,” which was published inOperae quae exstant omnia,Vol. I, pp. 389-518, under the editorship of Samuel Horsley in London in 1779. The title is ascribed not to the author Newton but to a copyist William Jones. The tract which Horsley edited asArtis analyticae specimina vel Geometria analyticais basically identical to “De Methodus serierum et fluxionum,” written in Winter 1670-71, in D. T. Whiteside, ed,The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton,Vol. III (1670-1673), (Cambridge, 1969). Jones copied Newton’s manuscript about 1710. See Whiteside’s Introduction,Op. cit.,pp. 11-13. See also Whiteside’s “General Introduction,” inThe Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton,Vol. I (1664-1666), (Cambridge, 1967), pp. xxiii and xxviii, notes (26) and (34). I am skeptical about Newton’s use of “analytic geometry” in other works as well.

In 1797 Sylvestre François Lacroix (1765-1843) wrote in
*Traité du calcul différentiel et du calcul
intégral*: “There exists a manner of viewing geometry that
could be called *géométrie analytiques,* and which
would consist in deducing the properties of extension from the least
possible number of principles, and by truly analytic methods.” This
quote was taken from the DSB. The Compact DSB states that Lacroix
“was first to propose the term analytic geometry.”

In "The work of Nicholas Bourbaki" (*Amer. Math. Monthly,* 1970,
p. 140), J. A. Dieudonné protested:

It is absolutely intolerable to use analytical geometry for linear algebra with coordinates, still called analytical geometry in the elementary books. Analytical geometry in this sense never existed. There are only people who do linear algebra badly, by taking coordinates and this they call analytical geometry. Out with them! Everyone knows that analytical geometry is the theory of analytical spaces, one of the deepest and most difficult theories of all mathematics.

[Julio González Cabillón, Carlos César de Araújo]

**ANCILLARY** in the theory of
statistical estimation. The term "ancillary statistic" first appears
in R. A. Fisher's 1925
"Theory of Statistical Estimation.,"
*Proc. Cambr. Philos. Soc.* 22. p. 724, although interest in ancillary
statistics only gathered momentum in the mid-1930s when Fisher returned to the
topic in Two New Properties of Mathematical Likelihood
and other authors started contributing to it [John Aldrich, David
(1995)].

See ESTIMATION.

**ANGLE** is the subject of Definition
8 of Book 1 of Euclid’s *Elements.*
The modern English word derives ultimately from the Latin *angulus* which could mean *corner* as well as *angle*.

The *OED’s* first citation in English for *angle* in
the geometric sense is from John Trevisa’s translation (1398) of Bartholomaeus Anglicus *De
Proprietatibus Rerum*: “Of dyuers touchyng of lynes comeþ diuers
anglis. For som angle hatte *rectus angulus*,
and somme *obliquus* and *reflexus.*” Trevisa does not give English
expressions for the three kinds of angle; for these, see
the entry **RIGHT, OBTUSE and ACUTE ANGLES**.

**ANGLE OF DEPRESSION.** A Google print search finds *angle of depression* in 1723 in *A System of Mathematics...* by
James Hodgson: “From the Parallax of Altitude or Angle of Depression, by the means of
which the Planets appear at a greater distance from the Zenith than otherwise
they would do....” [James A. Landau]

**ANGLE OF ELEVATION.** A Google print search by James A. Landau finds *angle of elevation* in a 1686 paper by E. Halley,
“A Discourse Concerning Gravity, and its Properties, wherein the Descent of
Heavy Bodies, and the motion of Projects is briefly, but fully handled:
Together with the Solution of a Problem of great Use in GUNNERY” in the *Philosophical Transactions*:

Prop.IX. Problem: AProjectionbeing made as you please, having the Distance and Altitude, or Descent of anObject,through which theProjectpasses, together with theAngleofElevationof thelineofDirection; to find theParameterandVelocity,that is (inFig.2.) having theAngleFGB, GM, and MX.

**ANHARMONIC RATIO** and **ANHARMONIC FUNCTION.** Michel Chasles
coined the terms *rapport anharmonique* and *fonction
anharmonique* (Smith vol. 2, page 334).

He used the terms in his "Aperçu historique .... des
Méthodes en Géométrie," 1837, p.35. He uses
essentially the same definition as Möbius, but without the
signs, so a harmonic range gives the value +1 rather than -1. Then
he says "Ce rapport étant dit *harmonique* dans le cas
particulier où il est égal a l'unité, nous
l'appellerons, dans le cas général, *rapport* ou
*fonction anharmonique*" [Ken Pledger].

*Anharmonic relation*
is found in 1843 in
"Demonstration of Pascal's Theorem" by Arthur Cayley in the *Cambridge Mathematical Journal,* vol. IV:
"The demonstration of Chasles' form of Pascal's Theorem (viz. that the anharmonic relation of the planes 61, 62, 63, 64
is the same with that of 51, 52, 53, 54), is very much simpler; but as it would require some preparatory information with
reference to the analytical definition of the similarity of anharmonic relation, I must defer it to another opportunity"
[University of Michigan Digital Library].

*Anharmonic ratio* is found in English in in Arthur Cayley, “On the Triple Tangent Planes of Surfaces of the Third Order,”
*The Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal,* vol. IV (1849), pp. 118-132:
“Which remains unaltered for cyclical
permutations of *l, m, n,* ie. the anharmonic ratio of *x,* ξ, *x,*
is the same as that of *y,* η, *y,* .” [James A. Landau]

See also CROSS-RATIO.

**ANNULUS.** A Google print search finds the phrase *annulus nascens* (growing ring) in 1739 in an article, “Hydraulicks”
in the *Philosophical Transactions,* although here it is perhaps not a mathematical term. [James A. Landau]

A Google print search shows that Andrew Motte’s 1803 translation of Newton’s *Principia* has
“...so as for form a fluid annulus, or ring, of a round figure, and concentrical to the body T; and the several
parts of this annulus, performing their motions by the same law as the body P, will draw nearer to the body T, and move
swifter in the conjunction and opposition of themselves and the body S, than in the quadratures.” [James A. Landau]

*Annulus* is found in 1834 in the *Penny Cyclopedia,*
where it is described as “The name of a ring, or solid formed by
the revolution of a circle about a straight line exterior
to its circumference as an axis, and in the plane of the said circle”
(OED2).

**ANSATZ**. In everyday German
this word has several meanings related to the idea of *beginning*. Two—at
least—went into German and then into English mathematics. One is found in the
expression *Hibert’s Ansatz*, an adaptation of *der Hilbertische Ansatz* which
is found in Hilbert and Bernays *Grundlagen der Mathematik* (1939) II. p.
21 though the technique is older, going back to Hilbert’s work of the early
1920s. Here* Ansatz* means *formulation* or *approach*.

In mathematical physics *ansatz* is often used in another
sense, as a “mathematical assumption, especially about the form of an unknown
function, which is made in order to facilitate solution of an equation or other
problem.” (*OED*). A paper by Hans Bethe is often cited: “Zur
Theorie der Metalle. I. Eigenwerte und Eigenfunktionen der
linearen Atomkette,” *Zeitschrift für Physik A*, **71**, (1931),
205–226. Bethe uses the term *Ansatz* (see p. 208) without any explanation
which suggests that the usage was already established. In
English E. A. Uehling and G. E. Uhlenbeck wrote the word with an initial
capital letter, as in German, and in quotes to signal the word’s foreign origin:
see “Transport Phenomena in Einstein-Bose and Fermi-Dirac Gases. I,” *Physical
Review*,** 43**, (1933), p. 553. Today the word is written like an
ordinary English word. [John Aldrich]

**ANTIDERIVATIVE.** *Anti-derivative* appears in 1903 in
"Integration as a Summation" by George R. Dean in
*The American Mathematical Monthly.*
[*JSTOR* search] The word may be older.

**ANTI-DIFFERENTIAL** appears in 1904 in
*Elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus*
by William Anthony Granville with Percey F. Smith. A footnote to the word *integral* reads:
"Called *anti-differential* by some writers" [James A. Landau].

The term **ANTILOGARITHM** was introduced by John Napier.
It appears in *A Description of the Admirable Table of Logarithmes* (1616),
an English translation by Edward Wright of Napier's work:

And they are also the Logarithmes of the complements of the arches and sines towards the right hand, which we callAntilogarithmes.

**APARTMENT, BUILDING,** and **CHAMBER** in group theory. These are
translations of the everyday French words, *appartement, immeuble,* and *chambre*. J. Tits writes in “Buildings and
their Applications,” *Proceedings of the
International Congress of Mathematicians*: Vancouver, 1974 vol. 1, p.
209:

The buildings considered in this talk are particular simplicial complexes naturally associated to algebraic simple groups. The “real estate” terminology due to N. Bourbaki [Éléments de mathématique. Groupes et algèbres de Lie ch. 4-6.1968], originated in the fact that the maximal simplexes of these complexes are called “chambers” (in French, “chambre”, that is, “room”) because of their close connection with the “Weyl chamber” in the theory of root systems.

In the English translation, N. Bourbaki *Lie groups and Lie algebras chapters 4-6* (available on Google books),
the concepts are defined on p. 35. [John Aldrich]

The term **APOLAR** is due to Th. Reye, according to Maxime
Bôcher in *Modern Higher Algebra* (1885).

**APOTHEM** is found in 1822 in *Elements of Geoemtry and Trigonometry* translated from the French of M. A. Legendre, edited
by David Brewster. [Google print search]

The word does not appear in Euclid or any other ancient Greek text and appears to be a scholarly neologism [Antreas P. Hatzipolakis].

*Apothem* is commonly mispronounced; the primary stress is on
the first syllable.

**APPLIED MATHEMATICS.** See the entry PURE and APPLIED MATHEMATICS.

The term **ARBELOS** is apparently due to Archimedes. Thomas L.
Heath, in his "The Works of Archimedes" [Cambridge: At the University
Press, 1897], remarks that:

... we have a collection of Lemmas (Liber Assumptorum) which has reached us through the Arabic. [...] The Lemmas cannot, however, have been written by Archimedes in their present form, because his name is quoted in them more than once....though it is quite likely that some of the propositions were of Archimedean origin, e.g. those concerning the geometrical figures called respectively [arbelos, in Greek] (literally 'shoemaker's knife') and [salinon, in Greek] (probably a 'salt-cellar'), ...

*Arbelos* is found in English
in May 1859 in "On Contact, Centres of Similitude, and Radical Axes" by Matthew Collins
in the *Mathematical Monthly*: "This case is Pappus' Theorem XVI., and was referred to
by him as the *Arbelos.*" [Google print search]

[Ken Pledger, Antreas P. Hatzipolakis, Julio González Cabillón]

**ARBORESCENCE** is found in Y.-j. Chu and L. Tseng-hong, *On
the shortest arborescence of a directed graph,* Sci. Sin. 14,
1396-1400 (1965).

**ARBORICITY** occurs in G. Chartrand, H. V. Kronk, and C. E.
Wall, *The point-arboricity of a graph,* Isr. J. Math. 6,
169-175 (1968).

**ARCSINE.** For early uses of the symbol arc sin (or variations thereof), see the trigonometry page of the companion Math Symbols site.

This entry will show uses of *arcsine* as a word, spelled with the final *e.*

A Google print search by James A. Landau finds that “Discussion of Inverse Functions” by Cooper D. Schmitt in *American Mathematical Monthly,* April 1899, has:

We read it, “xequals the arc whose sine isa,or more briefly, “arc-sinea,”i. e.xequals arc-sinea.The expression is sometimes read “xequals the inverse sine ofa,” or “the anti-sine ofa.”

*Arcsine* is found in approximately 1904 in the E. R. Hedrick translation of volume I of
*A Course in Mathematical Analysis* by Edouard Goursat. The translation carries the date 1904, although a footnote
references a work dated 1905. The word appears in running text in the phrase “we obtain the following development
for the arcsine” [James A. Landau].

*Arctangent* appears in Hedrick (above).

**ARGAND DIAGRAM.** Jean-Robert
Argand presented his diagram in a small book published in 1806. The book is
reprinted with additional material from 1813-4 in *Essai sur une
manière de représenter les quantités imaginaires dans les constructions
géométriques*.

A Google print search finds *Argand diagram* in 1889 in *Algebra: An Elementary Text-Book for the Higher Classes of Secondary Schools and
for Colleges* by George Chrystal: “If we draw the Argand diagram for *w* = 1 + *x* + *yi*,
we see that when *r* is given *w* describes a circle of radius *r,* whose centre is the point (1, 0).” [James A. Landau]

**ARGUMENT.** This word derived from the Latin entered English in the 14th century with two basic
meanings, one in logic and one in astronomy. The quotations given in the *OED* are from the work of
Geoffrey Chaucer who
wrote stories about students of these subjects as well as an unfinished book on
the astrolabe, an instrument used by astronomers; this appears to have been the
earliest technical manual in English.

To illustrate the meaning "a statement or fact advanced for the purpose of influencing the mind"
the *OED* quotes from Chaucer’s
*Franklin’s
Tale* line 178 "Clerkes wol seyn as hem leste By Argumentz that
al is for the beste." Related meanings include dispute and process of
reasoning.

To illustrate the meaning "the angle, arc, or other mathematical quantity, from which another
required quantity may be deduced, or on which its calculation depends" the *OED*
quotes from the *Franklin’s
Tale* line 549 "Hise othere geeris, As been his centris and hise
Argumentz" and from the *Treatise on the Astrolabe.*
xliv. 54 "To knowe the mene mote and the argumentis of any planete."

The related meanings here include the argument (or phase or amplitude) of a complex number and the argument (or INDEPENDENT VARIABLE) of a function.

For the first see Briot & Bouquet’s
*Théorie
des fonctions elliptiques* (1859, p. 1). Today *argument* is the most popular English term
but a century ago there were several alternatives: "We find [the angle]
designated as argument, declination, arcus, anomalie, amplitude" wrote the translator of Burkhardt’s German treatise
*
Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable* (1913, p. 15). He translated Burkhardt’s *arcus*
as *amplitude*. G. H. Hardy also chose *amplitude*in his
*Course of Pure Mathematics* (1908, p. 82), apparently to keep *argument* for an independent variable.

For the second the *OED* gives a quotation from the 1879
edition of the *Encyclopedia Britannica*,
"In each case *u* is the
independent variable or argument of the function." A *JSTOR* search found Gompertz writing in
1825, "These tables represent the logarithm of the present values of
annuities for every value of a certain argument." ("On the
Nature of the Function Expressive of the Law of Human Mortality, and on a New
Mode of Determining the Value of Life Contingencies"
*Abstracts of Papers printed in the Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society* vol. 2, p. 253.)

This entry was contributed by John Aldrich. See also ABSOLUTE VALUE, ARGAND DIAGRAM and MODULUS.

**ARITHMETIC** is a Greek word transliterated into English as *arithmetike.* *Arithmetike* derives from *arithmos*,
the word for number and it
passed into Latin as *arithmetica.* Smith (vol. 2, page 7) writes that the Greeks used
*arithmetike* for the theory of numbers and *logistike* (logistic) for the art of
calculating. In modern English the more aristocratic name is applied to both
disciplines and most often to the more practical one. See the entry NUMBER THEORY.

Smith (vol. 2, page 8) describes some of the confusions around the word’s spelling:

The word "arithmetic," like most other words, has undergone many vicissitudes. In the Middle Ages, through a mistaken idea of its etymology, it took an extrar,as if it had to do with "metric." So we find Plato of Tivoli, in his translation (1116) of Abraham Savasorda, speaking of "Boetius in arismetricis." The title of the work of Johannes Hispalensis, a few years later (c. 1140), is given as "Arismetrica," and fifty years later than this we find Fibonacci dropping the initial and using the form "Rismetirca." The extraris generally found in the Italian literature until the time of printing. From Italy it passed over to Germany, where it is not uncommonly found in the books of the 16th century, and to France, where it is found less frequently. The ordinary variations in spelling have less significance, merely illustrating, as in the case with many other mathematical terms, the vagaries of pronunciation in the uncritical periods of the world's literatures.

**ARITHMETIC MEAN.** The arithmetic
mean was one of the three means studied by the Pythagoreans in Antiquity. See
MEAN.

A Google print search by James A. Landau
finds *arithmetical mean* in 1687 in *The Gaugers Magazine, Wherein the Foundation of his Art is briefly Expalin’d and
Illustrated with such Figures as may render the Whole intelligible to a mean
Capacity*by William Hunt, Gauger:

Take an Arithmetical mean between GH and CD, Diameters at the Top and Bottom of the Crown,viz.VW, and multiply the Area answerable thereto by IF the Altitude of that Segment, the Product is the Content of GHDC from which subduct the Content of the Crown CFD, the remainder is the Liquor lying about the Crown when just covered, which added to the upper part, the Sum is theContentof the wholeCopper.

The arithmetic mean has played an important role in the combination
of observations since the time of Galileo. In the *Theoria Motus* (*Theory
of the Motion of Heavenly Bodies moving around the Sun in Conic Sections*) (1809,
p. 244) Gauss took it as axiomatic that the
arithmetic mean affords the most probable value ("valorem maxime probabilem")
of the unknown. This has been called the **postulate of the arithmetic mean**
(E. T. Whittaker & G. Robinson *Calculus of Observations* (1924, p.
215)) Gauss found that the postulate implied that the errors follow the normal
distribution. See ERROR, NORMAL, and GAUSSIAN.

See also AVERAGE and MEAN.

The term **ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION** was used by Michael Stifel in
1543: "Divisio in Arethmeticis progressionibus respondet
extractionibus radicum in progressionibus Geometricis" [James A.
Landau].

*Arithmetic series* is found in 1723 in *A System of the Mathematics* James Hodgson [Google print search, James A. Landau].

**ARITHMETIZATION.** *Arithmeticize* is found in 1859 in *Pestalozzi
and Pestalozzianism : life, educational principles, and methods, of John Henry
Pestalozzi, with biographical sketches of several of his assistants and disciples
/ reprinted from the American journal of education* edited by Henry Barnard:
"[number] alone leads to infallible results; and, if geometry makes the
same claim, it can be only be means of the application of arithmetic, and in
conjunction with it; that is, it is infallible, as long as it arithmeticizes"
[University of Michigan Digital Library].

*Arithmetisirung* is found in 1879 in a review of McColl's "Calculus
of Equivalent Statements," *Proc. LMS,* vol X, pp 16-28:

In diesem dritten Artikel (die frueheren s.F.d.M. X. 34, JFM10. 0034.02) setzt Herr McColl seine zuerst unter dem Namen "Symbolical Language" veroeffentlichte und zunaechst zur Verwendung auf mathematische Probleme bestimmte Arithmetisirung der Logik fort und bringt sie zu einem gewissen Abschluss. (JFM11.0049.01)

*Arithmetisierung* appears in an 1887 essay by Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891)
"Ueber den Zahlbegriff" in *Crelle's Journal* 101 (in *Werke*
p. 253):

... ich glaube auch, dass es dereinst gelingen wird, den gesammten Inhalt aller dieser mathematischen Disciplinen zu "arithmetisiren", d.h. einzig und allein auf den im engsten Sinne genommenen Zahlbegriff zu gruenden, also die Modificationen und Erweiterungen dieses Begriffs wieder abzustreifen ...

*Arithmetize* is found in English in 1892 in H. B. Fine in *Bull. N.Y.
Math. Soc.* I. 175: "It is not merely that the purely arithmetical problems
growing out of algebra were attractive to him [sc. Kronecker] -- he 'arithmetized'
algebra itself" [OED2].

The phrase *Arithmetisirung der Mathematik* is the title of Felix Klein’s 1895 address before the Royal Society of Sciences
in Goettingen *Gesammelte mathematische
Abhandlungen 2* p. 232. [Julio González Cabillón, Michael Detlefsen].

G. U. Yule introduced the term **ASSOCIATION** of attributes
to "distinguish it from the 'correlation' of continuous variables" (p. 257n) in 1900
("On the
Association of Attributes in Statistics,"
*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London,* Ser. A, 194,
257-319.) (David, 1998.)

See CORRELATION.

**ASSOCIATIVE** "seems to be due to W. R. Hamilton" (Cajori 1919, page 273). Hamilton used the term
as follows:

However, in virtue of the same definitions, it will be found that another important property of the old multiplication is preserved, or extended to the new, namely, that which may be called theassociativecharacter of the operation....

The citation above is from
"On a new Species of Imaginary
Quantities connected with a theory of Quaternions" Royal Irish Academy, *Proceedings,*
Nov. 13, 1843, vol. 2, 424-434.

In his biography of Hamilton, Thomas Hankins discusses this paper:

This paper is marked as having been communicated on Nov. 13, 1843, but it closed with a note that it had been abstracted from a larger paper to appear in theThe citation above is fromTransactionsof the academy (Math. Papers, 3:116). That longer paper, also dated Nov. 13, 1843 was not published until 1848, and when it did appear it concluded with a note mentioning works written as late as June 1847 ("Researches respecting Quaternions: First Series," Royal Irish Academy,Transactions21, [1848]: 199-296, in Math. Papers, 3:159-216, "note A," pp. 217-26). In a note Hamilton stated that his presentation on Nov. 13, 1843 had been "in great part oral" (Math. Papers, 3:225); therefore it is possible that his statement of and naming of the associative law was added later when his original communication was to be printed in 1844. It is thus possible that he first recognized the importance of the associative law in 1844, when he began work on Graves's octaves.

(These citations were provided by David Wilkins.)

**ASTROID.** According to E. H. Lockwood (1961):

The astroid seems to have acquired its present name only in 1838, in a book published in Vienna; it went, even after that time, under various other names, such as cubocycloid, paracycle, four-cusp-curve, and so on. The equationThis quote was taken from Xah Lee's Visual Dictionary of Special Plane Curves website.x^{2/3}+y^{2/3}==a^{2/3}can, however, be found in Leibniz's correspondence as early as 1715.

**ASYMPTOTE** was used by Apollonius, with a broader meaning than
its current definition, referring to any lines which do not meet, in
whatever direction they are produced (Smith).

The first citation of the word in the OED is in 1656 in *Hobbes'
Elements of Philosophy* by Thomas Hobbes:
"Asymptotes..come still nearer and nearer, but never touch."

**ASYMPTOTIC** in the sense of "pertaining to large-sample
behaviour" only became current in Statistics in the 1940s, although asymptotic
arguments had been used for centuries. A *JSTOR* search produced the following:
**asymptotic distribution** in S. S. Wilks "Shortest Average Confidence
Intervals from Large Samples" *Annals of Mathematical Statistics*,
**9**, (1938), pp. 166-175, **asymptotically normal **in A. M. Mood "The
Distribution Theory of Runs" *Annals of Mathematical Statistics*, **11**,
(1940), pp. 367-392 **asymptotic efficiency** in M. S. Bartlett "On
the Theoretical Specification and Sampling Properties of Autocorrelated Time-Series"
*Supplement to the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society*, **8**,
(1946), pp. 27-41.

These were new names for established concepts. However **asymptotic relative
efficiency** was a new concept, introduced and named by E. J. G. Pitman in
lectures given in 1948. The term appears in G. E. Noether's "Asymptotic Properties
of the Wald-Wolfowitz Test of Randomness" *Annals of Mathematical Statistics*,
**21**, (1950), pp. 231-246. [John Aldrich, using David (2001)]

See NORMAL, EFFICIENCY, HYPOTHESIS & HYPOTHESIS TESTING, SMALL SAMPLE.

**AUGMENTED MATRIX** is found in an 1861 paper by Henry Smith, "On
systems of linear indeterminate equations and congruences,"
*Philosophical
Transactions, vol cli*, 293-326.
“If to this matrix we add an additional vertical column, composed of the absolute terms of the equations,
the resulting matrix we shall term (for brevity) the *augmented* matrix of the system.”
[Rod Gow]

**AUTOCORRELATION FUNCTION** in N. Wiener's *Extrapolation, Interpolation and Smoothing of
Stationary Time Series* (1949) refers to a function which was prominent but unnamed in his
"Generalized Harmonic Analysis" of 1930 (*Acta Mathematica,* **55,** 117-258) and
in writings back to 1926. The term "auto-correlation" appears in 1933 in a report of a paper
by H. T. Davis (*Econometrica,* **1,** 434) which discusses Wiener's work. Wiener's
function was not strictly a correlation for it was not mean-corrected or normalised; it was
also defined in continuous time. The **AUTOCORRELATION COEFFICIENT** of H. Wold's (*A Study
in the Analysis of Stationary Time Series* (1938)) was mean-corrected and normalised and defined
for processes in discrete time. The earlier "serial correlation coefficient" has also survived [John Aldrich].

See STOCHASTIC PROCESS and SERIAL CORRELATION.

**AUTOLOGICAL and HETEROLOGICAL.** The
*OED*’s earliest citation is F. P. Ramsey writing in the *Proceedings
of the London Mathematical Society*, **25**, (1926), 358: “Let us call
adjectives whose meanings are predicates of them, like ‘short’, autological;
others heterological.” The terms derived from the German *autologisch*
and *heterologisch* introduced by K. Grelling and L. Nelson “Bemerkungen
zu den Paradoxien von Russell und Burali-Forti” *Abhandlungen der Fries’schen
Schule II*, Göttingen 1908, S. 301-334. See *Wikipedia*
on The
Grelling-Nelson paradox.

**AUTOMORPHIC FORM, AUTOMORPHIC FUNCTION.** These terms were used by Felix Klein in 1890 in
“zur Theorie der Laméschen Functionen”
in the 1890 issue of *Nachrichten von der Königlichen Gesellschaft
der Wissenschaften und der Georg-Augusts-Universität zu Göttingen.*
*Automorphe Functionen* appears once, on page 94:

Bekanntlich sind λ und √f(λ) in dem soeben gefundenen η eindeutig; sie stellen solche eindeutige Functionen von η vor, welche sich bei unendlich vielen linearen Substitutionen von η reproduciren (ich möchte vorschlagen, solche Functionen überhaupt automorphe Functionen von η zu nennen).

Babelfish translates this as “I would like to suggest, such Functionen at all automorphe Functionen of η to call.”

*Aautomorphe Formen* appears once, on page 95:

Bei diesen bleiben dann, λ_{1}, λ_{2}ungeändert; ich schlage dementsprechend vor, dieselben als automorphe Formen vonF_{1},F_{2}zu bezeichnen.

Babelfish translates this as “With these remain then λ,
λ ungeandert I suggest accordingly calling the same as
automorphe forms of *F.*”

Klein also used both *automorphe functionen* and *automorphe formen* in
*Vorlesungen über die Theorie der elliptischen Modulfunctionen* (1890), with a footnote reading:

Hr. Poincaré hat über die gedachten Functionen ausser einer grossen Reihe kleinerer mit dem Jahre 1881 beginnender Noten in der Comptes Rendus zunächst 1881 einen Aufsatz in den Mathematischen Annalen (Bd. 19: Sur les fonctions uniformes qui se reproduisent par des substitutions linéaires) .. Hr. Klein bezeichnet die hier in Betracht kommenden Functionen neuerdings als linear-automorphe Functionen oder wohl auch kurzweg als automorphe Functionen.

The 1892 issue of *Nachrichten* pages 283 – 291 has a paper by Klein
“Die Eindeutigen automorphen Formen vom Geschlechte Null” (pp. 283-91)
in which he uses *automorphen Formen, automoörphe Functionen,* and two new expressions, *automorphe Inegrale* and *automorphe Reihe.*
Furthermore he refers to Poincaré several times and refers to *Poincarésche Reihe.*

*Automorphic function* appears in English in 1892 in the *Bulletin of the New York Mathematical Society*:
“The theory of automorphic functions, recently developed by
Poincare and Klein, affords instances of analytic functions with
natural boundaries....”

[This entry was contributed by James A. Landau.]

**AUTOMORPHIC TRANSFORMATION.** Automorphic transformations appear to have been first investigated by Hermite, who
called them (in French) *transformation en elle-meme,* which translates into English as “transformation into itself.”

In “Remarques sur un memoire de M. Cayley relative aux Determinants Gauches” in
the *Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal*
(1854), Hermite wrote “Je me propose de donner içi des
formules analogues à celles de M. Cayley, pour la transformation
en elle-même d’une
forme quadratique quelconque.” [I propose to give here formulas
analogous to those of Mr. Cayley for the transformation into itself of
any quadratic form whatsoever.]

Cayley used *transformation en elle-même* in a French-language paper he wrote in 1855, but used *automorphic transformation* when writing in English in 1858.
It is not clear whether Cayley introduced the term *automorphic transformation* into English or whether he was using an existing term.

[This entry was contributed by James A. Landau.]

**AUTOMORPHISM** was used by H. J. Stephen Smith in “Report on the Theory of Numbers—Part III,”
which appeared in 1862 in the published *Report of the Thirty-First Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.*

**AUTOREGRESSION** and **AUTOREGRESSIVE PROCESS** derive from H. Wold's "process
of linear autoregression" (*A Study in the Analysis of Stationary Time
Series* (1938)) which referred to processes of the type analysed by G. U. Yule in
"On a Method of
Investigating Periodicities in Disturbed
Series, with Special Reference to Wolfer's Sunspot Numbers,"
*Phil. Trans. Royal Society,* **226A,** (1927), 267-298. Long before
Yule, in 1877, Galton used the first-order process to model inheritance.
(David, 2001)

The multivariate generalisation was considered by H. B. Mann
& A. Wald “On the Statistical Treatment of Linear Stochastic Difference Equations,”
*Econometrica*, **11**, No. 3/4, (1943), 173-220. A *JSTOR* search found the term
**vector autoregressive process** in D. F. Hendry “Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Systems
of Simultaneous Regression Equations with Errors Generated by a Vector Autoregressive Process,”
*International Economic Review*, **12**, No. 2. (1971), 257-272.

See REGRESSION, YULE-WALKER EQUATIONS and STOCHASTIC PROCESS.

**AVERAGE**, according to the OED, appeared in English around 1500 originally in connection
with maritime trade in the Mediterranean. The dictionary gives a list of successive meanings of the term, as follows:

(1) Originally an impost on goods. (1502)

(2) Any charge in excess of the freight charges, payable by the owner of the goods. (1491)

(3) Loss to the owners from damage at sea. (1611)

(4) Equitable distribution of such expense, when shared by a group. (1598)

(5) Distribution of the aggregate inequalities of a series of things. (1735)

(6) The arithmetic mean so obtained, the medium, amount, the "common run." (1755)

The year is that of the earliest quotation the dictionary gives for that particular usage.

(Based on the entry "Average" in Walker (1929, p. 176))

Average is often used as an alternative for both mean (in general) and arithmetic mean. Like mean, it is often used in the sense of "expected value."

See ARITHMETIC MEAN, MEAN, CENTRAL TENDENCY and also Symbols in Statistics on the Symbols in Probability and Statistics page.

**AVOIRDUPOIS.** From Smith vol. 2, page 639:

The word "avoirdupois" is more properly spelled "averdepois," and it so appears in some of the early books. It comes from the Middle Englishaver de poiz,meaning "goods of weight." In the 16th century it was commonly called "Haberdepoise," as in most of the editions of Recorde's (c. 1542)Ground of Artes.Thus in the Mellis eddition of 1594 we have: "At London & so all England thorugh are vsed two kids of waights and measures, as the Troy waight & the Haberdepoise."

The term **AXIOM** (in Greek, )
was used by the Stoic philosophers and by Aristotle, although, according
to W. & M. Kneale *The Development of Logic* (1962) p. 145, the Stoic
usage does not correspond to the modern "axiom" but to "judgement"
or "proposition."

In Euclid's
*Elements*
what would now be called "axioms" are designated either as "common
notions" or as "postulates." See the
list.
Kline (p. 59) explains that "the common notions are truths applicable to all sciences, whereas the postulates
apply only to geometry." The term "axiom" is not used but in
the notes to his edition of the *Elements* T. L Heath (1926, vol. 1, pp.
120-1) observed that Aristotle used a similar construction to "common notions"
as an alternative expression for "axioms." Proclus, an important commentator
on the *Elements* from the 5^{th} century AD, used "axioms."

The *OED* records the English word *axiom* in 1485 used in the sense of “a
proposition that commends itself to general acceptance.” The word came into
English from the Greek via Latin and French.

See POSTULATE.

**AXIOM OF ARCHIMEDES.** According to a message to a math history mailing
list by Yaakov Kupitz, an extended account of the axiom of Archimedes is given
by F. Enriques: "Prinzipien der Geometrie" in
*Encyklopadie
der Mathematischen Wissenschaften. Bd. 3, T.1,
H.1*, pp. 34ff. From this we learn that the erroneous name "axiom
of Archimedes" was given by Stolz "Zur Geometrie der Alten, insbesondere über ein Axiom des Archimedes,"
*Mathematische
Annalen, 22, (1883)*, 504-519.
The suggestion that the axiom be attributed, instead, to Eudoxos was made by
Zeuthen at the Heidelberg congress of mathematics (circa 1900), p. 541 of the
congress volume. Today Zeuthen's suggestion is universally accepted.

**AXIOM OF CHOICE.** In 1904 in "Beweis, dass jede Menge wohlgeordnet
werden kann" ["Proof that every set can be well-ordered"],
*Mathematische
Annalen, 59*, 514-6. Ernst
Zermelo used the Axiom of Choice to prove that every set can be well-ordered.
Zermelo did not use the name "Axiom of Choice". Rather he stated:

The present proof rests upon the assumption that coverings gamma actually do exist, hence upon the principle that even for an infinite totality of sets there are always mappings that associate with every set one of its elements, or, expressed formally, that the product of an infinite totality of sets, each containing at least one element, itself differs from zero. This logical principle cannot, to be sure, be reduced to a still simpler one, but it is applied without hesitation everywhere in mathematical deduction.

"gamma" is defined earlier in the paper by

Imagine that with every subset M' there is associated an arbitrary element m'_{1}that occurs in M' itself...This yields a "covering" gamma of the [set of all subsets M'] by certain elements of the set M.

Zermelo adds "I owe to Mr. Erhard Schmidt the idea that, by invoking this principle, we can take an arbitrary covering gamma as a basis for the well-ordering."

In the paper "Untersuchungen über die Grundlagen der Mengenlehre I"
["Investigations in the foundations of set theory I"], *Mathematische
Annalen, 65*, 261-281 Zermelo
presents a set of axioms for set theory. (This paper is generally dated 1908
in bibliographies, presumably because that was the year it appeared in

AXIOM VI. (Axiom of choice). If T is a set whose elements all are sets that are different from 0 and mutually disjoint, its union "union of T" includes at least one subset S_{1}having one and only one element in common with each element of T. [The original German read "Axiom der Auswahl".]

In another paper also published in 1908, " Neuer Beweis für die Möglichkeit
einer Wohlordnung" ["A new proof of the possibility of a well-ordering"],
*Mathematische
Annalen, 65*, 107-28, Zermelo writes

Now in order to apply our theorem to arbitrary sets, we require only the additional assumption that a simultaneous choice of distinguished elements is in principle always possible for an arbitrary set of setsIV. Axiom. A set S that can be decomposed into a set of disjoint parts A, B, C..., each containing at least one element, possesses at least one subset S

_{1}having exactly one element in common with each of the parts A,B,C,... considered.

In the same paper Zermelo adds:

Even Peano'sFormulaire,which is an attempt to reduce all of mathematics to "syllogisms" (in the Aristotelian-Scholastics sense), rests upon quite a number of unprovable principles; one of these is equivalent to the principle of choice for a single set and can then be extended syllogistically to an arbitrary finite number of sets.

All of the above material is from Heijenoort (1967). The translations of Zermelo in this book are by Stefan Bauer-Mengelberg.

In 1908 Bertrand Russell wrote in his "Mathematical Logic as Based on
the Theory of Types," *American Journal of Mathematics*, **30**,
222-262

Many elementary theorems concerning cardinals require the use of the multiplicative axiom [i.e. the axiom that, given a set of mutually exclusive classes, none of which are null, there is at least one class consisting of a member from each class in the set]. It is to be observed that this axiom is equivalent to Zermelo’s, and therefore to the assumption that every class can be well ordered. These equivalent assumptions are, apparently, all incapable of proof, though the multiplicative axiom, at least, appears highly self-evident. (pp. 258-9)

According to Grattan-Guinness (2000, p. 341) Russell discovered the multiplicative axiom in 1904 "slightly before the conception and writing of Zermelo’s paper, so reversing the priority over finding Russell’s paradox." See RUSSELL'S PARADOX.

The axiom of choice was first used in set theory and the theory of transfinite
numbers but it was soon applied to other branches of mathematics. The HAUSDORFF
PARADOX was an early example (1914). Many of the applications were due
to Polish mathematicians with
Wacław
Sierpiński in the lead: see e.g. his "Sur le rôle de l'axiome
de M. Zermelo dans l’analyse moderne,"
*Comptes
Rendus, 163, (1916)*, 688-691.
Gregory Moore

For a long time a reference to Zermelo was mandatory
as in “the Zermelo Axiom of Choice” in E. W. Chittenden and A. D. Pitcher “On
the Theory of Developments of an Abstract Class in Relation to the Calcul
Fonctionnel,” *Transactions of the American Mathematical Society*, **20**,
(3), (1919), p. 215. But eventually the simple *axiom of choice* became
acceptable; see e.g. Sierpiński’s
“Les exemples
effectifs et l'axiome du choix,” *Fundamenta Mathematicae*, **2**,
(1921), 112-118.

This article was contributed by James A. Landau.

**AXIS** occurs in English in the phrase "the Axis or Altitude of
the Cone" in 1571 in *A Geometricall Practise named Pantometria*
by Thomas Digges (1546?-1595) (OED2).